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Archive for the ‘PIC32’ Category

VGA Signal Generation with the PIC32

Monday, May 22nd, 2017

It all started after I had designed – and received from fabrication – a circuit board for prototyping cartridges for the Acorn Electron microcomputer. Although some prototyping had already taken place with an existing cartridge, with pins intended for ROM components being routed to drive other things, this board effectively “breaks out” all connections available to a cartridge that has been inserted into the computer’s Plus 1 expansion unit.

Acorn Electron cartridge breakout board

The Acorn Electron cartridge breakout board being used to drive an external circuit

One thing led to another, and soon my brother, David, was interfacing a microcontroller to the Electron in order to act as a peripheral being driven directly by the system’s bus signals. His approach involved having a program that would run and continuously scan the signals for read and write conditions and then interpret the address signals, sending and receiving data on the bus when appropriate.

Having acquired some PIC32 devices out of curiosity, with the idea of potentially interfacing them with the Electron, I finally took the trouble of looking at the datasheet to see whether some of the hard work done by David’s program might be handled by the peripheral hardware in the PIC32. The presence of something called “Parallel Master Port” was particularly interesting.

Operating this function in the somewhat insensitively-named “slave” mode, the device would be able to act like a memory device, with the signalling required by read and write operations mostly being dealt with by the hardware. Software running on the PIC32 would be able to read and write data through this port and be able to get notifications about new data while getting on with doing other things.

So began my journey into PIC32 experimentation, but this article isn’t about any of that, mostly because I put that particular investigation to one side after a degree of experience gave me perhaps a bit too much confidence, and I ended up being distracted by something far more glamorous: generating a video signal using the PIC32!

The Precedents’ Hall of Fame

There are plenty of people who have written up their experiments generating VGA and other video signals with microcontrollers. Here are some interesting examples:

And there are presumably many more pages on the Web with details of people sending pixel data over a cable to a display of some sort, often trying to squeeze every last cycle out of their microcontroller’s instruction processing unit. But, given an awareness of how microcontrollers should be able to take the burden off the programs running on them, employing peripheral hardware to do the grunt work of switching pins on and off at certain frequencies, maybe it would be useful to find examples of projects where such advantages of microcontrollers had been brought to bear on the problem.

In fact, I was already aware of the Maximite “single chip computer” partly through having seen the cloned version of the original being sold by Olimex – something rather resented by the developer of the Maximite for reasons largely rooted in an unfortunate misunderstanding of Free Software licensing on his part – and I was aware that this computer could generate a VGA signal. Indeed, the method used to achieve this had apparently been written up in a textbook for the PIC32 platform, albeit generating a composite video signal using one of the on-chip SPI peripherals. The Colour Maximite uses three SPI channels to generate one red, one green, and one blue channel of colour information, thus supporting eight-colour graphical output.

But I had been made aware of the Parallel Master Port (PMP) and its “master” mode, used to drive LCD panels with eight bits of colour information per pixel (or, using devices with many more pins than those I had acquired, with sixteen bits of colour information per pixel). Would it surely not be possible to generate 256-colour graphical output at the very least?

Information from people trying to use PMP for this purpose was thin on the ground. Indeed, reading again one article that mentioned an abandoned attempt to get PMP working in this way, using the peripheral to emit pixel data for display on a screen instead of a panel, I now see that it actually mentions an essential component of the solution that I finally arrived at. But the author had unfortunately moved away from that successful component in an attempt to get the data to the display at a rate regarded as satisfactory.

Direct Savings

It is one thing to have the means to output data to be sent over a cable to a display. It is another to actually send the data efficiently from the microcontroller. Having contemplated such issues in the past, it was not a surprise that the Maximite and other video-generating solutions use direct memory access (DMA) to get the hardware, as opposed to programs, to read through memory and to write its contents to a destination, which in most cases seemed to be the memory address holding output data to be emitted via a data pin using the SPI mechanism.

I had also envisaged using DMA and was still fixated on using PMP to emit the different data bits to the output circuit producing the analogue signals for the display. Indeed, Microchip promotes the PMP and DMA combination as a way of doing “low-cost controllerless graphics solutions” involving LCD panels, so I felt that there surely couldn’t be much difference between that and getting an image on my monitor via a few resistors on the breadboard.

And so, a tour of different PIC32 features began, trying to understand the DMA documentation, the PMP documentation, all the while trying to get a grasp of what the VGA signal actually looks like, the timing constraints of the various synchronisation pulses, and battle various aspects of the MIPS architecture and the PIC32 implementation of it, constantly refining my own perceptions and understanding and learning perhaps too often that there may have been things I didn’t know quite enough about before trying them out!

Using VGA to Build a Picture

Before we really start to look at a VGA signal, let us first look at how a picture is generated by the signal on a screen:

VGA Picture Structure

The structure of a display image or picture produced by a VGA signal

The most important detail at this point is the central area of the diagram, filled with horizontal lines representing the colour information that builds up a picture on the display, with the actual limits of the screen being represented here by the bold rectangle outline. But it is also important to recognise that even though there are a number of visible “display lines” within which the colour information appears, the entire “frame” sent to the display actually contains yet more lines, even though they will not be used to produce an image.

Above and below – really before and after – the visible display lines are the vertical back and front porches whose lines are blank because they do not appear on the screen or are used to provide a border at the top and bottom of the screen. Such extra lines contribute to the total frame period and to the total number of lines dividing up the total frame period.

Figuring out how many lines a display will have seems to involve messing around with something called the “generalised timing formula”, and if you have an X server like Xorg installed on your system, you may even have a tool called “gtf” that will attempt to calculate numbers of lines and pixels based on desired screen resolutions and frame rates. Alternatively, you can look up some common sets of figures on sites providing such information.

What a VGA Signal Looks Like

Some sources show diagrams attempting to describe the VGA signal, but many of these diagrams are open to interpretation (in some cases, very much so). They perhaps show the signal for horizontal (display) lines, then other signals for the entire image, but they either do not attempt to combine them, or they instead combine these details ambiguously.

For instance, should the horizontal sync (synchronisation) pulse be produced when the vertical sync pulse is active or during the “blanking” period when no pixel information is being transmitted? This could be deduced from some diagrams but only if you share their authors’ unstated assumptions and do not consider other assertions about the signal structure. Other diagrams do explicitly show the horizontal sync active during vertical sync pulses, but this contradicts statements elsewhere such as “during the vertical sync period the horizontal sync must also be held low”, for instance.

After a lot of experimentation, I found that the following signal structure was compatible with the monitor I use with my computer:

VGA Signal Structure

The basic structure of a VGA signal, or at least a signal that my monitor can recognise

There are three principal components to the signal:

  • Colour information for the pixel or line data forms the image on the display and it is transferred within display lines during what I call the visible display period in every frame
  • The horizontal sync pulse tells the display when each horizontal display line ends, or at least the frequency of the lines being sent
  • The vertical sync pulse tells the display when each frame (or picture) ends, or at least the refresh rate of the picture

The voltage levels appear to be as follows:

  • Colour information should be at 0.7V (although some people seem to think that 1V is acceptable as “the specified peak voltage for a VGA signal”)
  • Sync pulses are supposed to be at “TTL” levels, which apparently can be from 0V to 0.5V for the low state and from 2.7V to 5V for the high state

Meanwhile, the polarity of the sync pulses is also worth noting. In the above diagram, they have negative polarity, meaning that an active pulse is at the low logic level. Some people claim that “modern VGA monitors don’t care about sync polarity”, but since it isn’t clear to me what determines the polarity, and since most descriptions and demonstrations of VGA signal generation seem to use negative polarity, I chose to go with the flow. As far as I can tell, the gtf tool always outputs the same polarity details, whereas certain resources provide signal characteristics with differing polarities.

It is possible, and arguably advisable, to start out trying to generate sync pulses and just grounding the colour outputs until your monitor (or other VGA-capable display) can be persuaded that it is receiving a picture at a certain refresh rate and resolution. Such confirmation can be obtained on a modern display by seeing a blank picture without any “no signal” or “input not supported” messages and by being able to activate the on-screen menu built into the device, in which an option is likely to exist to show the picture details.

How the sync and colour signals are actually produced will be explained later on. This section was merely intended to provide some background and gather some fairly useful details into one place.

Counting Lines and Generating Vertical Sync Pulses

The horizontal and vertical sync pulses are each driven at their own frequency. However, given that there are a fixed number of lines in every frame, it becomes apparent that the frequency of vertical sync pulse occurrences is related to the frequency of horizontal sync pulses, the latter occurring once per line, of course.

With, say, 622 lines forming a frame, the vertical sync will occur once for every 622 horizontal sync pulses, or at a rate that is 1/622 of the horizontal sync frequency or “line rate”. So, if we can find a way of generating the line rate, we can not only generate horizontal sync pulses, but we can also count cycles at this frequency, and every 622 cycles we can produce a vertical sync pulse.

But how do we calculate the line rate in the first place? First, we decide what our refresh rate should be. The “classic” rate for VGA output is 60Hz. Then, we decide how many lines there are in the display including those extra non-visible lines. We multiply the refresh rate by the number of lines to get the line rate:

60Hz * 622 = 37320Hz = 37.320kHz

On a microcontroller, the obvious way to obtain periodic events is to use a timer. Given a particular frequency at which the timer is updated, a quick calculation can be performed to discover how many times a timer needs to be incremented before we need to generate an event. So, let us say that we have a clock frequency of 24MHz, and a line rate of 37.320kHz, we calculate the number of timer increments required to produce the latter from the former:

24MHz / 37.320kHz = 24000000Hz / 37320Hz = 643

So, if we set up a timer that counts up to 642 and then upon incrementing again to 643 actually starts again at zero, with the timer sending a signal when this “wraparound” occurs, we can have a mechanism providing a suitable frequency and then make things happen at that frequency. And this includes counting cycles at this particular frequency, meaning that we can increment our own counter by 1 to keep track of display lines. Every 622 display lines, we can initiate a vertical sync pulse.

One aspect of vertical sync pulses that has not yet been mentioned is their duration. Various sources suggest that they should last for only two display lines, although the “gtf” tool specifies three lines instead. Our line-counting logic therefore needs to know that it should enable the vertical sync pulse by bringing it low at a particular starting line and then disable it by bringing it high again after two whole lines.

Generating Horizontal Sync Pulses

Horizontal sync pulses take place within each display line, have a specific duration, and they must start at the same time relative to the start of each line. Some video output demonstrations seem to use lots of precisely-timed instructions to achieve such things, but we want to use the peripherals of the microcontroller as much as possible to avoid wasting CPU time. Having considered various tricks involving specially formulated data that might be transferred from memory to act as a pulse, I was looking for examples of DMA usage when I found a mention of something called the Output Compare unit on the PIC32.

What the Output Compare (OC) units do is to take a timer as input and produce an output signal dependent on the current value of the timer relative to certain parameters. In clearer terms, you can indicate a timer value at which the OC unit will cause the output to go high, and you can indicate another timer value at which the OC unit will cause the output to go low. It doesn’t take much imagination to realise that this sounds almost perfect for generating the horizontal sync pulse:

  1. We take the timer previously set up which counts up to 643 and thus divides the display line period into units of 1/643.
  2. We identify where the pulse should be brought low and present that as the parameter for taking the output low.
  3. We identify where the pulse should be brought high and present that as the parameter for taking the output high.

Upon combining the timer and the OC unit, then configuring the output pin appropriately, we end up with a low pulse occurring at the line rate, but at a suitable offset from the start of each line.

VGA Display Line Structure

The structure of each visible display line in the VGA signal

In fact, the OC unit also proves useful in actually generating the vertical sync pulses, too. Although we have a timer that can tell us when it has wrapped around, we really need a mechanism to act upon this signal promptly, at least if we are to generate a clean signal. Unfortunately, handling an interrupt will introduce a delay between the timer wrapping around and the CPU being able to do something about it, and it is not inconceivable that this delay may vary depending on what the CPU has been doing.

So, what seems to be a reasonable solution to this problem is to count the lines and upon seeing that the vertical sync pulse should be initiated at the start of the next line, we can enable another OC unit configured to act as soon as the timer value is zero. Thus, upon wraparound, the OC unit will spring into action and bring the vertical sync output low immediately. Similarly, upon realising that the next line will see the sync pulse brought high again, we can reconfigure the OC unit to do so as soon as the timer value again wraps around to zero.

Inserting the Colour Information

At this point, we can test the basic structure of the signal and see if our monitor likes it. But none of this is very interesting without being able to generate a picture, and so we need a way of getting pixel information from the microcontroller’s memory to its outputs. We previously concluded that Direct Memory Access (DMA) was the way to go in reading the pixel data from what is usually known as a framebuffer, sending it to another place for output.

As previously noted, I thought that the Parallel Master Port (PMP) might be the right peripheral to use. It provides an output register, confusingly called the PMDIN (parallel master data in) register, that lives at a particular address and whose value is exposed on output pins. On the PIC32MX270, only the least significant eight bits of this register are employed in emitting data to the outside world, and so a DMA destination having a one-byte size, located at the address of PMDIN, is chosen.

The source data is the framebuffer, of course. For various retrocomputing reasons hinted at above, I had decided to generate a picture 160 pixels in width, 256 lines in height, and with each byte providing eight bits of colour depth (specifying how many distinct colours are encoded for each pixel). This requires 40 kilobytes and can therefore reside in the 64 kilobytes of RAM provided by the PIC32MX270. It was at this point that I learned a few things about the DMA mechanisms of the PIC32 that didn’t seem completely clear from the documentation.

Now, the documentation talks of “transactions”, “cells” and “blocks”, but I don’t think it describes them as clearly as it could do. Each “transaction” is just a transfer of a four-byte word. Each “cell transfer” is a collection of transactions that the DMA mechanism performs in a kind of batch, proceeding with these as quickly as it can until it either finishes the batch or is told to stop the transfer. Each “block transfer” is a collection of cell transfers. But what really matters is that if you want to transfer a certain amount of data and not have to keep telling the DMA mechanism to keep going, you need to choose a cell size that defines this amount. (When describing this, it is hard not to use the term “block” rather than “cell”, and I do wonder why they assigned these terms in this way because it seems counter-intuitive.)

You can perhaps use the following template to phrase your intentions:

I want to transfer <cell size> bytes at a time from a total of <block size> bytes, reading data starting from <source address>, having <source size>, and writing data starting at <destination address>, having <destination size>.

The total number of bytes to be transferred – the block size – is calculated from the source and destination sizes, with the larger chosen to be the block size. If we choose a destination size less than the source size, the transfers will not go beyond the area of memory defined by the specified destination address and the destination size. What actually happens to the “destination pointer” is not immediately obvious from the documentation, but for our purposes, where we will use a destination size of one byte, the DMA mechanism will just keep writing source bytes to the same destination address over and over again. (One might imagine the pointer starting again at the initial start address, or perhaps stopping at the end address instead.)

So, for our purposes, we define a “cell” as 160 bytes, being the amount of data in a single display line, and we only transfer one cell in a block. Thus, the DMA source is 160 bytes long, and even though the destination size is only a single byte, the DMA mechanism will transfer each of the source bytes into the destination. There is a rather unhelpful diagram in the documentation that perhaps tries to communicate too much at once, leading one to believe that the cell size is a factor in how the destination gets populated by source data, but the purpose of the cell size seems only to be to define how much data is transferred at once when a transfer is requested.

DMA Transfer Mechanism

The transfer of framebuffer data to PORTB using DMA cell transfers (noting that this hints at the eventual approach which uses PORTB and not PMDIN)

In the matter of requesting a transfer, we have already described the mechanism that will allow us to make this happen: when the timer signals the start of a new line, we can use the wraparound event to initiate a DMA transfer. It would appear that the transfer will happen as fast as both the source and the destination will allow, at least as far as I can tell, and so it is probably unlikely that the data will be sent to the destination too quickly. Once the transfer of a line’s pixel data is complete, we can do some things to set up the transfer for the next line, like changing the source data address to point to the next 160 bytes representing the next display line.

(We could actually set the block size to the length of the entire framebuffer – by setting the source size – and have the DMA mechanism automatically transfer each line in turn, updating its own address for the current line. However, I intend to support hardware scrolling, where the address of the first line of the screen can be adjusted so that the display starts part way through the framebuffer, reaches the end of the framebuffer part way down the screen, and then starts again at the beginning of the framebuffer in order to finish displaying the data at the bottom of the screen. The DMA mechanism doesn’t seem to support the necessary address wraparound required to manage this all by itself.)

Output Complications

Having assumed that the PMP peripheral would be an appropriate choice, I soon discovered some problems with the generated output. Although the data that I had stored in the RAM seemed to be emitted as pixels in appropriate colours, there were gaps between the pixels on the screen. Yet the documentation seemed to vaguely indicate that the PMDIN register was more or less continuously updated. That meant that the actual output signals were being driven low between each pixel, causing black-level gaps and ruining the result.

I wondered if anything could be done about this issue. PMP is really intended as some kind of memory interface, and it isn’t unreasonable for it to only maintain valid data for certain periods of time, modifying control signals to define this valid data period. That PMP can be used to drive LCD panels is merely a result of those panels themselves upholding this kind of interface. For those of you familiar with microcontrollers, the solution to my problem was probably obvious several paragraphs ago, but it needed me to reconsider my assumptions and requirements before I realised what I should have been doing all along.

Unlike SPI, which concerns itself with the bit-by-bit serial output of data, PMP concerns itself with the multiple-bits-at-once parallel output of data, and all I wanted to do was to present multiple bits to a memory location and have them translated to a collection of separate signals. But, of course, this is exactly how normal I/O (input/output) pins are provided on microcontrollers! They all seem to provide “PORT” registers whose bits correspond to output pins, and if you write a value to those registers, all the pins can be changed simultaneously. (This feature is obscured by platforms like Arduino where functions are offered to manipulate only a single pin at once.)

And so, I changed the DMA destination to be the PORTB register, which on the PIC32MX270 is the only PORT register with enough bits corresponding to I/O pins to be useful enough for this application. Even then, PORTB does not have a complete mapping from bits to pins: some pins that are available in other devices have been dedicated to specific functions on the PIC32MX270F256B and cannot be used for I/O. So, it turns out that we can only employ at most seven bits of our pixel data in generating signal data:

PORTB Pin Availability on the PIC32MX270F256B
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

We could target the first byte of PORTB (bits 0 to 7) or the second byte (bits 8 to 15), but either way we will encounter an unmapped bit. So, instead of choosing a colour representation making use of eight bits, we have to make do with only seven.

Initially, not noticing that RPB6 was not available, I was using a “RRRGGGBB” or “332″ representation. But persuaded by others in a similar predicament, I decided to choose a representation where each colour channel gets two bits, and then a separate intensity bit is used to adjust the final intensity of the basic colour result. This also means that greyscale output is possible because it is possible to balance the channels.

The 2-bit-per-channel plus intensity colours

The colours employing two bits per channel plus one intensity bit, perhaps not shown completely accurately due to circuit inadequacies and the usual white balance issues when taking photographs

It is worth noting at this point that since we have left the 8-bit limitations of the PMP peripheral far behind us now, we could choose to populate two bytes of PORTB at once, aiming for sixteen bits per pixel but actually getting fourteen bits per pixel once the unmapped bits have been taken into account. However, this would double our framebuffer memory requirements for the same resolution, and we don’t have that much memory. There may be devices with more than sixteen bits mapped in the 32-bit PORTB register (or in one of the other PORT registers), but they had better have more memory to be useful for greater colour depths.

Back in Black

One other matter presented itself as a problem. It is all very well generating a colour signal for the pixels in the framebuffer, but what happens at the end of each DMA transfer once a line of pixels has been transmitted? For the portions of the display not providing any colour information, the channel signals should be held at zero, yet it is likely that the last pixel on any given line is not at the lowest possible (black) level. And so the DMA transfer will have left a stray value in PORTB that could then confuse the monitor, producing streaks of colour in the border areas of the display, making the monitor unsure about the black level in the signal, and also potentially confusing some monitors about the validity of the picture, too.

As with the horizontal sync pulses, we need a prompt way of switching off colour information as soon as the pixel data has been transferred. We cannot really use an Output Compare unit because that only affects the value of a single output pin, and although we could wire up some kind of blanking in our external circuit, it is simpler to look for a quick solution within the capabilities of the microcontroller. Fortunately, such a quick solution exists: we can “chain” another DMA channel to the one providing the pixel data, thereby having this new channel perform a transfer as soon as the pixel data has been sent in its entirety. This new channel has one simple purpose: to transfer a single byte of black pixel data. By doing this, the monitor will see black in any borders and beyond the visible regions of the display.

Wiring Up

Of course, the microcontroller still has to be connected to the monitor somehow. First of all, we need a way of accessing the pins of a VGA socket or cable. One reasonable approach is to obtain something that acts as a socket and that breaks out the different signals from a cable, connecting the microcontroller to these broken-out signals.

Wanting to get something for this task quickly and relatively conveniently, I found a product at a local retailer that provides a “male” VGA connector and screw-adjustable terminals to break out the different pins. But since the VGA cable also has a male connector, I also needed to get a “gender changer” for VGA that acts as a “female” connector in both directions, thus accommodating the VGA cable and the male breakout board connector.

Wiring up to the broken-out VGA connector pins is mostly a matter of following diagrams and the pin numbering scheme, illustrated well enough in various resources (albeit with colour signal transposition errors in some resources). Pins 1, 2 and 3 need some special consideration for the red, green and blue signals, and we will look at them in a moment. However, pins 13 and 14 are the horizontal and vertical sync pins, respectively, and these can be connected directly to the PIC32 output pins in this case, since the 3.3V output from the microcontroller is supposedly compatible with the “TTL” levels. Pins 5 through 10 can be connected to ground.

We have seen mentions of colour signals with magnitudes of up to 0.7V, but no explicit mention of how they are formed has been presented in this article. Fortunately, everyone is willing to show how they converted their digital signals to an analogue output, with most of them electing to use a resistor network to combine each output pin within a channel to produce a hopefully suitable output voltage.

Here, with two bits per channel, I take the most significant bit for a channel and send it through a 470ohm resistor. Meanwhile, the least significant bit for the channel is sent through a 1000ohm resistor. Thus, the former contributes more to the magnitude of the signal than the latter. If we were only dealing with channel information, this would be as much as we need to do, but here we also employ an intensity bit whose job it is to boost the channels by a small amount, making sure not to allow the channels to pollute each other via this intensity sub-circuit. Here, I feed the intensity output through a 2200ohm resistor and then to each of the channel outputs via signal diodes.

VGA Output Circuit

The circuit showing connections relevant to VGA output (generic connections are not shown)

The Final Picture

I could probably go on and cover other aspects of the solution, but the fundamental aspects are probably dealt with sufficiently above to help others reproduce this experiment themselves. Populating memory with usable image data, at least in this solution, involves copying data to RAM, and I did experience problems with accessing RAM that are probably related to CPU initialisation (as covered in my previous article) and to synchronising the memory contents with what the CPU has written via its cache.

As for the actual picture data, the RGB-plus-intensity representation is not likely to be the format of most images these days. So, to prepare data for output, some image processing is needed. A while ago, I made a program to perform palette optimisation and dithering on images for the Acorn Electron, and I felt that it was going to be easier to adapt the dithering code than it was to figure out the necessary techniques required for software like ImageMagick or the Python Imaging Library. The pixel data is then converted to assembly language data definition statements and incorporated into my PIC32 program.

VGA output from a PIC32 microcontroller

VGA output from a PIC32 microcontroller, featuring a picture showing some Oslo architecture, with the PIC32MX270 being powered (and programmed) by the Arduino Duemilanove, and with the breadboards holding the necessary resistors and diodes to supply the VGA breakout and, beyond that, the cable to the monitor

To demonstrate control over the visible region, I deliberately adjusted the display frequencies so that the monitor would consider the signal to be carrying an image 800 pixels by 600 pixels at a refresh rate of 60Hz. Since my framebuffer is only 256 lines high, I double the lines to produce 512 lines for the display. It would seem that choosing a line rate to try and produce 512 lines has the monitor trying to show something compatible with the traditional 640×480 resolution and thus lines are lost off the screen. I suppose I could settle for 480 lines or aim for 300 lines instead, but I actually don’t mind having a border around the picture.

The on-screen menu showing the monitor's interpretation of the signal

The on-screen menu showing the monitor's interpretation of the signal

It is worth noting that I haven’t really mentioned a “pixel clock” or “dot clock” so far. As far as the display receiving the VGA signal is concerned, there is no pixel clock in that signal. And as far as we are concerned, the pixel clock is only important when deciding how quickly we can get our data into the signal, not in actually generating the signal. We can generate new colour values as slowly (or as quickly) as we might like, and the result will be wider (or narrower) pixels, but it shouldn’t make the actual signal invalid in any way.

Of course, it is important to consider how quickly we can generate pixels. Previously, I mentioned a 24MHz clock being used within the PIC32, and it is this clock that is used to drive peripherals and this clock’s frequency that will limit the transfer speed. As noted elsewhere, a pixel clock frequency of 25MHz is used to support the traditional VGA resolution of 640×480 at 60Hz. With the possibilities of running the “peripheral clock” in the PIC32MX270 considerably faster than this, it becomes a matter of experimentation as to how many pixels can be supported horizontally.

Some Oslo street art being displayed by the PIC32

Some Oslo street art being displayed by the PIC32

For my own purposes, I have at least reached the initial goal of generating a stable and usable video signal. Further work is likely to involve attempting to write routines to modify the framebuffer, maybe support things like scrolling and sprites, and even consider interfacing with other devices.

Naturally, this project is available as Free Software from its own repository. Maybe it will inspire or encourage you to pursue something similar, knowing that you absolutely do not need to be any kind of “expert” to stubbornly persist and to eventually get results!

Evaluating PIC32 for Hardware Experiments

Friday, May 19th, 2017

Some time ago I became aware of the PIC32 microcontroller platform, perhaps while following various hardware projects, pursuing hardware-related interests, and looking for pertinent documentation. Although I had heard of PIC microcontrollers before, my impression of them was that they were mostly an alternative to other low-end computing products like the Atmel AVR series, but with a development ecosystem arguably more reliant on its vendor than the Atmel products for which tools like avr-gcc and avrdude exist as Free Software and have gone on to see extensive use, perhaps most famously in connection with the Arduino ecosystem.

What made PIC32 stand out when I first encountered it, however, was that it uses the MIPS32 instruction set architecture instead of its own specialised architecture. Consequently, instead of being reliant on the silicon vendor and random third-party tool providers for proprietary tools, the possibility of using widely-used Free Software tools exists. Moreover, with a degree of familiarity with MIPS assembly language, thanks to the Ben NanoNote, I felt that there might be an opportunity to apply some of my elementary skills to another MIPS-based system and gain some useful experience.

Some basic investigation occurred before I made any attempt to acquire hardware. As anyone having to pay attention to the details of hardware can surely attest, it isn’t much fun to obtain something only to find that some necessary tool required for the successful use of that hardware happens to be proprietary, only works on proprietary platforms, or is generally a nuisance in some way that makes you regret the purchase. Looking around at various resources such as the Pinguino Web site gave me some confidence that there were people out there using PIC32 devices with Free Software. (Of course, the eventual development scenario proved to be different from that envisaged in these initial investigations, but previous experience has taught me to expect that things may not go as originally foreseen.)

Some Discoveries

So that was perhaps more than enough of an introduction, given that I really want to focus on some of my discoveries in using my acquired PIC32 devices, hoping that writing them up will help others to use Free Software with this platform. So, below, I will present a few discoveries that may well, for all I know, be “obvious” to people embedded in the PIC universe since it began, or that might be “superfluous” to those happy that Microchip’s development tools can obscure the operation of the hardware to offer a simpler “experience”.

I should mention at this point that I chose to acquire PDIP-profile products for use with a solderless breadboard. This is the level of sophistication at which the Arduino products mostly operate and it allows convenient prototyping involving discrete components and other electronic devices. The evidence from the chipKIT and Pinguino sites suggested that it would be possible to set up a device on a breadboard, wire it up to a power supply with a few supporting components, and then be able to program it. (It turned out that programming involved another approach than indicated by that latter reference, however.)

The 28-pin product I elected to buy was the PIC32MX270F256B-50/SP. I also bought some capacitors that were recommended for wiring up the device. In the picture below, you can just about see the capacitor connecting two of the pins, and there is also a resistor pulling up one of the pins. I recommend obtaining a selection of resistors of different values so as to be able to wire up various circuits as you encounter them. Note that the picture does not show a definitive wiring guide: please refer to the product documentation or to appropriate project documentation for such things.

PIC32 device on a mini-breadboard

PIC32 device on a mini-breadboard connected to an Arduino Duemilanove for power and programming

Programming the Device

Despite the apparent suitability of a program called pic32prog, recommended by the “cheap DIY programmer” guide, I initially found success elsewhere. I suppose it didn’t help that the circuit diagram was rather hard to follow for me, as someone who isn’t really familiar with certain electrical constructs that have been mixed in, arguably without enough explanation.

Initial Recommendation: ArduPIC32

Instead, I looked for a solution that used an Arduino product (not something procured from ephemeral Chinese “auction site” vendors) and found ArduPIC32 living a quiet retirement in the Google Code Archive. Bypassing tricky voltage level conversion and connecting an Arduino Duemilanove with the PIC32 device on its 5V-tolerant JTAG-capable pins, ArduPIC32 mostly seemed to work, although I did alter it slightly to work the way I wanted to and to alleviate the usual oddness with Arduino serial-over-USB connections.

However, I didn’t continue to use ArduPIC. One reason is that programming using the JTAG interface is slow, but a much more significant reason is that the use of JTAG means that the pins on the PIC32 associated with JTAG cannot be used for other things. This is either something that “everybody” knows or just something that Microchip doesn’t feel is important enough to mention in convenient places in the product documentation. More on this topic below!

Final Recommendation: Pickle (and Nanu Nanu)

So, I did try and use pic32prog and the suggested circuit, but had no success. Then, searching around, I happened to find some very useful resources indeed: Pickle is a GPL-licensed tool for uploading data to different PIC devices including PIC32 devices; Nanu Nanu is a GPL-licensed program that runs on AVR devices and programs PIC32 devices using the ICSP interface. Compiling the latter for the Arduino and uploading it in the usual way (actually done by the Makefile), it can then run on the Arduino and be controlled by the Pickle tool.

Admittedly, I did have some problems with the programming circuit, most likely self-inflicted, but the developer of these tools was very responsive and, as I know myself from being in his position in other situations, provided the necessary encouragement that was perhaps most sorely lacking to get the PIC32 device talking. I used the “sink” or “open drain” circuit so that the Arduino would be driving the PIC32 device using a suitable voltage and not the Arduino’s native 5V. Conveniently, this is the default configuration for Nanu Nanu.

PIC32 on breadboard with Arduino programming circuit

PIC32 on breadboard with Arduino programming circuit (and some LEDs for diagnostic purposes)

I should point out that the Pinguino initiative promotes USB programming similar to that employed by the Arduino series of boards. Even though that should make programming very easy, it is still necessary to program the USB bootloader on the PIC32 device using another method in the first place. And for my experiments involving an integrated circuit on a breadboard, setting up a USB-based programming circuit is a distraction that would have complicated the familiarisation process and would have mostly duplicated the functionality that the Arduino can already provide, even though this two-stage programming circuit may seem a little contrived.

Compiling Code for the Device

This is perhaps the easiest problem to solve, strongly motivating my choice of PIC32 in the first place…

Recommendation: GNU Toolchain

PIC32 uses the MIPS32 instruction set. Since MIPS has been around for a very long time, and since the architecture was prominent in workstations, servers and even games consoles in the late 1980s and 1990s, remaining in widespread use in more constrained products such as routers as this century has progressed, the GNU toolchain (GCC, binutils) has had a long time to comfortably support MIPS. Although the computer you are using is not particularly likely to be MIPS-based, cross-compiling versions of these tools can be built to run on, say, x86 or x86-64 while generating MIPS32 executable programs.

And fortunately, Debian GNU/Linux provides the mipsel-linux-gnu variant of the toolchain packages (at least in the unstable version of Debian) that makes the task of building software simply a matter of changing the definitions for the compiler, linker and other tools in one’s Makefile to use these variants instead of the unprefixed “host” gcc, ld, and so on. You can therefore keep using the high-quality Free Software tools you already know. The binutils-mipsel-linux-gnu package provides an assembler, if you just want to practise your MIPS assembly language, as well as a linker and tools for creating binaries. Meanwhile, the gcc-mipsel-linux-gnu package provides a C compiler.

Perhaps the only drawback of using the GNU tools is that people using the proprietary tools supplied by Microchip and partners will post example code that uses special notation interpreted in a certain way by those products. Fortunately, with some awareness that this is going on, we can still support the necessary functionality in our own way, as described below.

Configuring the Device

With the PIC32, and presumably with the other PIC products, there is a distinct activity of configuring the device when programming it with program code and data. This isn’t so obvious until one reads the datasheets, tries to find a way of changing some behaviour of the device, and then stumbles across the DEVCFG registers. These registers cannot be set in a running program: instead, they are “programmed” before the code is run.

You might wonder what the distinction is between “programming” the device to take the code you have written and “programming” the configuration registers, and there isn’t much difference conceptually. All that matters is that you have your program written into one part of the device’s memory and you also ask for certain data values to be written to the configuration registers. How this is done in the Microchip universe is with something like this:

#pragma config SOMETHING = SOMEVALUE;

With a basic GNU tool configuration, we need to find the equivalent operation and express it in a different way (at least as far as I know, unless someone has implemented an option to support this kind of notation in the GNU tools). The mechanism for achieving this is related to the linker script and is described in a section of this article presented below. For now, we will concentrate on what configuration settings we need to change.

Recommendation: Disable JTAG

As briefly mentioned above, one thing that “everybody” knows, at least if they are using Microchip’s own tools and are busy copying code from Microchip’s examples, is that the JTAG functionality takes over various pins and won’t let you use them, even if you switch on a “peripheral” in the microcontroller that needs to use those pins. Maybe I am naive about how intrusive JTAG should or should not be, but the lesson from this matter is just to configure the device to not have JTAG features enabled and to use the ICSP programming method recommended above instead.

Recommendation: Disable Watchdog Timer

Again, although I am aware of the general concept of a watchdog timer – something that resets a device if it thinks that the device has hung, crashed, or experienced something particularly bad – I did not expect something like this to necessarily be configured by default. In case it is, and one does see lots of code assuming so, then it should be disabled as well. Otherwise, I can imagine that you might experience spontaneous resets for no obvious reason.

Recommendation: Configure the Oscillator and Clocks

If you need to change the oscillator frequency or the origin of the oscillator used by the PIC32, it is perhaps best to do this in the configuration registers rather than try and mess around with this while the device is running. Indeed, some configuration is probably unavoidable even if there is a need to, say, switch between oscillators at run-time. Meanwhile, the relationship between the system clock (used by the processor to execute instructions) and the peripheral clock (used to interact with other devices and to run things like timers) is defined in the configuration registers.

Linker Scripts

So, to undertake the matter of configuration, a way is needed to express the setting of configuration register values in a general way. For this, we need to take a closer look at linker scripts. If you routinely compile and link software, you will be using linker scripts without realising it, because such scripts are telling the tools things about where parts of the program should be stored, what kinds of addresses they should be using, and so on. Here, we need to take more of an interest in such matters.

Recommendation: Expand a Simple Script

Writing linker scripts does not seem like much fun. The syntax is awkward to read and to produce as a human being, and knowledge about tool output is assumed. However, it is possible to start with a simple script that works for someone else in a similar situation and to modify it conservatively in order to achieve what you need. I started out with one that just defined the memory regions and a few sections. To avoid reproducing all the details here, I will just show what the memory regions for a configuration register look like:

  config2                    : ORIGIN = 0xBFC00BF4, LENGTH = 0x4
  physical_config2           : ORIGIN = 0x3FC00BF4, LENGTH = 0x4

This will be written in the MEMORY construct in the script. What they tell us is that config2 is a region of four bytes starting at virtual address 0xBFC00BF4, which is the location of the DEVCFG2 register as specified in the PIC32MX270 documentation. However, this register actually has a physical address of 0x3FC00BF4. The difference between virtual addresses and physical addresses is perhaps easiest to summarise by saying that CPU instructions would use the virtual address when referencing the register, whereas the actual memory of the device employs the physical address to refer to this four-byte region.

Meanwhile, in the SECTIONS construct, there needs to be something like this:

  .devcfg2 : {
        } > config2 AT > physical_config2

Now you might understand my remark about the syntax! Nevertheless, what these things do is to tell the tools to put things from a section called .devcfg2 in the physical_config2 memory region and, if there were to be any address references in the data (which there isn’t in this case), then they would use the addresses in the config2 region.

Recommendation: Define Configuration Sections and Values in the Code

Since I have been using assembly language, here is what I do in my actual program source file. Having looked at the documentation and figured out which configuration register I need to change, I introduce a section in the code that defines the register value. For DEVCFG2, it looks like this:

.section .devcfg2, "a"
.word 0xfff9fffb        /* DEVCFG2<18:16> = FPLLODIV<2:0> = 001;
                        DEVCFG2<6:4> = FPLLMUL<2:0> = 111;
                        DEVCFG2<2:0> = FPLLIDIV<2:0> = 011 */

Here, I fully acknowledge that this might not be the most optimal approach, but when you’re learning about all these things at once, you make progress as best you can. In any case, what this does is to tell the assembler to include the .devcfg2 section and to populate it with the specified “word”, which is four bytes on the 32-bit PIC32 platform. This word contains the value of the register which has been expressed in hexadecimal with the most significant digit first.

Returning to our checklist of configuration tasks, what we now need to do is to formulate each one in terms of configuration register values, introduce the necessary sections and values, and adjust the values to contain the appropriate bit patterns. The above example shows how the DEVCFG2 bits are adjusted and set in the value of the register. Here is a short amplification of the operation:

31…28 27…24 23…20 19…16 15…12 11…8 7…4 3…0
1111 1111 1111 1001
1111 1111 1111
f f f 9 f f f b

Here, the underlined bits are those of interest and have been changed to the desired values. It turns out that we can set the other bits as 1 for the functionality we want (or don’t want) in this case.

By the way, the JTAG functionality is disabled in the DEVCFG0 register (JTAGEN, bit 2, on this device). The watchdog timer is disabled in DEVCFG1 (FWDTEN, bit 23, on this device).

Recommendation: Define Regions for Exceptions and Interrupts

The MIPS architecture has the processor jump to certain memory locations when bad things happen (exceptions) or when other things happen (interrupts). We will cover the details of this below, but while we are setting up the places in memory where things will reside, we might as well define where the code to handle exceptions and interrupts will be living:

  .flash : { *(.flash*) } > kseg0_program_mem AT > physical_program_mem

This will be written in the SECTIONS construct. It relies on a memory region being defined, which would appear in the MEMORY construct as follows:

  kseg0_program_mem    (rx)  : ORIGIN = 0x9D000000, LENGTH = 0x40000
  physical_program_mem (rx)  : ORIGIN = 0x1D000000, LENGTH = 0x40000

These definitions allow the .flash section to be placed at 0x9D00000 but actually be written to memory at 0x1D00000.

Initialising the Device

On the various systems I have used in the past, even when working in assembly language I never had to deal with the earliest stages of the CPU’s activity. However, on the MIPS systems I have used in more recent times, I have been confronted with the matter of installing code to handle system initialisation, and this does require some knowledge of what MIPS processors would like to do when something goes wrong or if some interrupt arrives and needs to be processed.

The convention with the PIC32 seems to be that programs are installed within the MIPS KSEG0 region (one of the four principal regions) of memory, specifically at address 0x9FC00000, and so in the linker script we have MEMORY definitions like this:

  kseg0_boot_mem       (rx)  : ORIGIN = 0x9FC00000, LENGTH = 0xBF0
  physical_boot_mem    (rx)  : ORIGIN = 0x1FC00000, LENGTH = 0xBF0

As you can see, this region is far shorter than the 512MB of the KSEG0 region in its entirety. Indeed, 0xBF0 is only 3056 bytes! So, we need to put more substantial amounts of code elsewhere, some of which will be tasked with handling things when they go wrong.

Recommendation: Define Exception and Interrupt Handlers

As we have seen, the matter of defining routines to handle errors and interrupt conditions falls on the unlucky Free Software developer in this case. When something goes wrong, like the CPU not liking an instruction it has just seen, it will jump to a predefined location and try and execute code to recover. By default, with the PIC32, this location will be at address 0×80000000 which is the start of RAM, but if the RAM has not been configured then the CPU will not achieve very much trying to load instructions from that address.

Now, it can be tempting to set the “exception base”, as it is known, to be the place where our “boot” code is installed (at 0x9FC00000). So if something bad does happen, our code will start running again “from the top”, a bit like what used to happen if you ever wrote BASIC code that said…


Clearly, this isn’t particularly desirable because it can mask problems. Indeed, I found that because I had not observed a step in the little dance required to change interrupt locations, my program would be happily restarting itself over and over again upon receiving interrupts. This is where the work done in the linker script starts to pay off: we can move the exception handler, this being the code residing at the exception base, to another region of memory and tell the CPU to jump to that address instead. We should therefore never have unscheduled restarts occurring once this is done.

Again, I have been working in assembly language, so I position my exception handling code using a directive like this:

.section .flash, "a"

    /* Exception handling code goes here. */

Note that .flash is what we mentioned in the linker script. After this directive, the exception handler is defined so that the CPU has something to jump to. But exceptions are just one kind of condition that may occur, and we also need to handle interrupts. Although we might be able to handle both things together, you can instead position an interrupt handler after the exception handler at a well-defined offset, and the CPU can be told to use that when it receives an interrupt. Here is what I do:

.org 0x200

    /* Interrupt handling code goes here. *

The .org directive tells the assembler that the interrupt handler will reside at an offset of 0×200 from the start of the .flash section. This number isn’t something I have made up: it is defined by the MIPS architecture and will be observed by the CPU when suitably configured.

So that leaves the configuration. Although one sees a lot of advocacy for the “multi-vector” interrupt handling support of the PIC32, possibly because the Microchip example code seems to use it, I wanted to stick with the more widely available “single-vector” support which is what I have effectively described above: you have one place the CPU jumps to and it is then left to the code to identify the interrupt condition – what it is that happened, exactly – and then handle the condition appropriately. (Multi-vector handling has the CPU identify the kind of condition and then choose a condition-specific location to jump to all by itself.)

The following steps are required for this to work properly:

  1. Make sure that the CP0 (co-processor 0) STATUS register has the BEV bit set. Otherwise things will fail seemingly inexplicably.
  2. Set the CP0 EBASE (exception base) register to use the exception handler address. This changes the target of the jump that occurs when an exception or interrupt occurs.
  3. Set the CP0 INTCTL (interrupt control) register to use a non-zero vector spacing, even though this setting probably has no relevance to the single-vector mode.
  4. Make sure that the CP0 CAUSE (exception cause) register has the IV bit set. This tells the CPU that the interrupt handler is at that magic 0×200 offset from the exception handler, meaning that interrupts should be dispatched there instead of to the exception handler.
  5. Now make sure that the CP0 STATUS register has the BEV bit cleared, so that the CPU will now use the new handlers.

To enable exceptions and interrupts, the IE bit in the CP0 STATUS register must be set, but there are also other things that must be done for them to actually be delivered.

Recommendation: Handle the Initial Error Condition

As I found out with the Ben NanoNote, a MIPS device will happily run in its initial state, but it turns out that this state is some kind of “error” state that prevents exceptions and interrupts from being delivered, even though interrupts may have been enabled. This does make some kind of sense: if a program is in the process of setting up interrupt handlers, it doesn’t really want an interrupt to occur before that work is done.

So, the MIPS architecture defines some flags in the CP0 STATUS register to override normal behaviour as some kind of “fail-safe” controls. The ERL (error level) bit is set when the CPU starts up, preventing errors (or probably most errors, at least) as well as interrupts from interrupting the execution of the installed code. The EXL (exception level) bit may also be set, preventing exceptions and interrupts from occurring even when ERL is clear. Thus, both of these bits must be cleared for interrupts to be enabled and delivered, and what happens next rather depends on how successful we were in setting up those handlers!

Recommendation: Set up the Global Offset Table

Something that I first noticed when looking at code for the Ben NanoNote was the initialisation of a register to refer to something called the global offset table (or GOT). For anyone already familiar with MIPS assembly language or the way code is compiled for the architecture, programs follow a convention where they refer to objects via a table containing the addresses of those objects. For example:

Global Offset Table
Offset from Start Member
+0 0
+4 address of _start
+8 address of my_routine
+12 address of other_routine

But in order to refer to the table, something has to have the address of the table. This is where the $gp register comes in: it holds that address and lets the code access members of the table relative to the address.

What seems to work for setting up the $gp register is this:

        lui $gp, %hi(_GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_)
        ori $gp, $gp, %lo(_GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_)

Here, the upper 16 bits of the $gp register are set with the “high” 16 bits of the value assigned to the special _GLOBAL_OFFSET_TABLE_ symbol, which provides the address of the special .got section defined in the linker script. This value is then combined using a logical “or” operation with the “low” 16 bits of the symbol’s value.

(I’m sure that anyone reading this far will already know that MIPS instructions are fixed length and are the same length as the address being loaded here, so it isn’t possible to fit the address into the load instruction. So each half of the address has to be loaded separately by different instructions. If you look at the assembled output of an assembly language program employing the “li” instruction, you will see that the assembler breaks this instruction down into “lui” and “ori” if it needs to. Note well that you cannot rely on the “la” instruction to load the special symbol into $gp precisely because it relies on $gp having already been set up.)

Rounding Off

I could probably go on about MIPS initialisation rituals, setting up a stack for function calls, and so on, but that isn’t really what this article is about. My intention here is to leave enough clues and reminders for other people in a similar position and perhaps even my future self.

Even though I have some familiarity with the MIPS architecture, I suppose you might be wondering why I am not evaluating more open hardware platforms. I admit that it is partly laziness: I could get into doing FPGA-related stuff and deploy open microcontroller cores, maybe even combining them with different peripheral circuits, but that would be a longer project with a lot of familiarisation involved, plus I would have to choose carefully to get a product supported by Free Software. It is also cheapness: I could have ordered a HiFive1 board and started experimenting with the RISC-V architecture, but that board seems expensive for what it offers, at least once you disregard the pioneering aspects of the product and focus on the applications of interest.

So, for now, I intend to move slowly forwards and gain experiences with an existing platform. In my next article on this topic, I hope to present some of the things I have managed to achieve with the PIC32 and a selection of different components and technologies.