Paul Boddie's Free Software-related blog

Archive for November, 2013

The Organisational Panic Button and the Magic Single Vendor Delusion

Wednesday, November 27th, 2013

I have had reason to consider the way organisations make technology choices in recent months, particularly where the public sector is concerned, and although my conclusions may not come as a surprise to some people, I think they sum up fairly well how bad decisions get made even if the intentions behind them are supposedly good ones. Approaching such matters from a technological point of view, being informed about things like interoperability, systems diversity, the way people adopt and use technology, and the details of how various technologies work, it can be easy to forget that decisions around acquisitions and strategies are often taken by people who have no appreciation of such things and no time or inclination to consider them either: as far as decision makers are concerned, such things are mere details that obscure the dramatic solution that shows them off as dynamic leaders getting things done.

Assuming the Position

So, assume for a moment that you are a decision-maker with decisions to make about technology, that you have in your organisation some problems that may or may not have technology as their root cause, and that because you claim to listen to what people in your organisation have to say about their workplace, you feel that clear and decisive measures are required to solve some of those problems. First of all, it is important to make sure that when people complain about something, they are not mixing that thing up with something else that really makes their life awkward, but let us assume that you and your advisers are aware of that issue and are good at getting to the heart of the real problem, whatever that may be. Next, people may ask for all sorts of things that they want but do not actually need – “an iPad in every meeting room, elevator and lavatory cubicle!” – and even if you also like the sound of such wild ideas, you also need to be able to restrain yourself and to acknowledge that it would simply be imprudent to indulge every whim of the workforce (or your own). After all, neither they nor you are royalty!

With distractions out of the way, you can now focus on the real problems. But remember: as an executive with no time for detail, the nuances of a supposedly technological problem – things like why people really struggle with some task in their workplace and what technical issues might be contributing to this discomfort – these things are distractions, too. As someone who has to decide a lot of things, you want short and simple summaries and to give short and simple remedies, delegating to other people to flesh out the details and to make things happen. People might try and get you to understand the detail, but you can always delegate the task of entertaining such explanations and representations to other people, naturally telling them not to waste too much time on executing the plan.

Architectural ornamentation in central Oslo

Architectural ornamentation in central Oslo

On the Wrong Foot

So, let us just consider what we now know (or at least suspect) about the behaviour of someone in an executive position who has an organisation-wide problem to solve. They need to demonstrate leadership, vision and intent, certainly: it is worth remembering that such positions are inherently political, and if there is anything we should all know about politics by now, it is that it is often far more attractive to make one’s mark, define one’s legacy, fulfil one’s vision, reserve one’s place in the history books than it is to just keep things running efficiently and smoothly and to keep people generally satisfied with their lot in life; this principle alone explains why the city of Oslo is so infatuated with prestige projects and wants to host the Winter Olympics in a few years’ time (presumably things like functioning public transport, education, healthcare, even an electoral process that does not almost deliberately disenfranchise entire groups of voters, will all be faultless by then). It is far more exciting being a politician if you can continually announce exciting things, leaving the non-visionary stuff to your staff.

Executives also like to keep things as uncluttered as possible, even if the very nature of a problem is complicated, and at their level in the organisation they want the explanations and the directives to be as simple as possible. Again, this probably explains the “rip it up and start over” mentality that one sees in government, especially after changes in government even if consecutive governments have ideological similarities: it is far better to be seen to be different and bold than to be associated with your discredited predecessors.

But what do these traits lead to? Well, let us return to an organisational problem with complicated technical underpinnings. Naturally, decision-makers at the highest levels will not want to be bored with the complications – at the classic “10000 foot” view, nothing should be allowed to encroach on the elegant clarity of the decision – and even the consideration of those complications may be discouraged amongst those tasked to implement the solution. Such complications may be regarded as a legacy of an untidy and unruly past that was not properly governed or supervised (and are thus mere symptoms of an underlying malaise that must be dealt with), and the need to consider them may draw time and resources away from an “urgently needed” solution that deals with the issue no matter what it takes.

How many times have we been told “not to spend too much time” on something? And yet, that thing may need to be treated thoroughly so that it does not recur over and over again. And as too many people have come to realise or experience, blame very often travels through delegation: people given a task to see through are often deprived of resources to do it adequately, but this will not shield them from recriminations and reprisals afterwards.

It should not demand too much imagination to realise that certain important things will be sacrificed or ignored within such a decision-making framework. Executives will seek simplistic solutions that almost favour an ignorance of the actual problem at hand. Meanwhile, the minions or underlings doing the work may seek to stay as close as possible to the exact word of the directive handed down to them from on high, abandoning any objective assessment of the problem domain, so as to be able to say if or when things go wrong that they were only following the instructions given to them, and that as everything falls to pieces it was the very nature of the vision that led to its demise rather than the work they did, or that they took the initiative to do something “unsanctioned” themselves.

The Magic Single Vendor Temptation

We can already see that an appreciation of the finer points of a problem will be an early casualty in the flawed framework described above, but when pressure also exists to “just do something” and when possible tendencies to “make one’s mark” lie just below the surface, decision-makers also do things like ignore the best advice available to them, choosing instead to just go over the heads of the people they employ to have opinions about matters of technology. Such antics are not uncommon: there must be thousands or even millions of people with the experience of seeing consultants breeze into their workplace and impart opinions about the work being done that are supposedly more accurate, insightful and valuable than the actual experiences of the people paid to do that very work. But sometimes hubris can get the better of the decision-maker to the extent that their own experiences are somehow more valid than those supposed experts on the payroll who cannot seem to make up their minds about something as mundane as which technology to use.

And so, the executive may be tempted to take a page from their own playbook: maybe they used a product in one of their previous organisations that had something to do with the problem area; maybe they know someone in their peer group who has an opinion on the topic; maybe they can also show that they “know about these things” by choosing such a product. And with so many areas of life now effectively remedied by going and buying a product that instantly eradicates any deficiency, need, shortcoming or desire, why would this not work for some organisational problem? “What do you mean ‘network provisioning problems’? I can get the Internet on my phone! Just tell everybody to do that!”

When the tendency to avoid complexity meets the apparent simplicity of consumerism (and of solutions encountered in their final form in the executive’s previous endeavours), the temptation to solve a problem at a single stroke or a single click of the “buy” button becomes great indeed. So what if everyone affected by the decision has different needs? The product will surely meet all those needs: the vendor will make sure of that. And if the vendor cannot deliver, then perhaps those people should reconsider their needs. “I’ve seen this product work perfectly elsewhere. Why do you people have to be so awkward?” After all, the vendor can work magic: the salespeople practically told us so!

Nothing wrong here: a public transport "real time" system failure; all the trains are arriving "now"

Nothing wrong here: a public transport "real time" system failure; all the trains are arriving "now"

The Threat to Diversity

In those courses in my computer science degree that dealt with the implementation of solutions at the organisational level, as opposed to the actual implementation of software, attempts were made to impress upon us students the need to consider the requirements of any given problem domain because any solution that neglects the realities of the problem domain will struggle with acceptance and flirt with failure. Thus, the impatient executive approach involving the single vendor and their magic product that “does it all” and “solves the problem” flirts openly and readily with failure.

Technological diversity within an organisation frequently exists for good reason, not to irritate decision-makers and their helpers, and the larger the organisation the larger the potential diversity to be found. Extrapolating from narrow experiences – insisting that a solution must be good enough for everyone because “it is good enough for my people” – risks neglecting the needs of large sections of an organisation and denying the benefits of diversity within the organisation. In turn, this risks the health of those parts of an organisation whose needs have now been ignored.

But diversity goes beyond what people happen to be using to do their job right now. By maintaining the basis for diversity within an organisation, it remains possible to retain the freedom for people to choose the most appropriate systems and platforms for their work. Conversely, undermining diversity by imposing a single vendor solution on everyone, especially when such solutions also neglect open standards and interoperability, threatens the ability for people to make choices central to their own work, and thus threatens the vitality of that work itself.

Stories abound of people in technical disciplines who “also had to have a Windows computer” to do administrative chores like fill out their expenses, hours, travel claims, and all the peripheral tasks in a workplace, even though they used a functioning workstation or other computer that would have been adequate to perform the same chores within a framework that might actually have upheld interoperability and choice. Who pays for all these extra computers, and who benefits from such redundancy? And when some bright spark in the administration suggests throwing away the “special” workstation, putting administrative chores above the real work, what damage does this do to the working environment, to productivity, and to the capabilities of the organisation?

Moreover, the threat to diversity is more serious than many people presumably understand. Any single vendor solution imposed across an organisation also threatens the independence of the institution when that solution also informs and dictates the terms under which other solutions are acquired and introduced. Any decision-maker who regards their “one product for everybody” solution as adequate in one area may find themselves supporting a “one vendor for everything” policy that infects every aspect of the organisation’s existence, especially if they are deluded enough to think that they getting a “good deal” by buying all their things from that one vendor and thus unquestioningly going along with it all for “economic reasons”. At that point, one has to wonder whether the organisation itself is in control of its own acquisitions, systems or strategies any longer.

Somebody Else’s Problem

People may find it hard to get worked up about the tools and systems their employer uses. Surely, they think, what people have chosen to run a part of the organisation is a matter only for those who work with that specific thing from one day to the next. When other people complain about such matters, it is easy to marginalise them and to accuse them of making trouble for the sake of doing so. But such reactions are short-sighted: when other people’s tools are being torn out and replaced by something less than desirable, bystanders may not feel any urgency to react or even think about showing any sympathy at all, but when tendencies exist to tackle other parts of an organisation with simplistic rationalisation exercises, who knows whose tools might be the next ones to be tampered with?

And from what we know from unfriendly solutions that shun interoperability and that prefer other solutions from the same vendor (or that vendor’s special partners), when one person’s tool or system gets the single vendor treatment, it is not necessarily only that person who will be affected: suddenly, other people who need to exchange information with that person may find themselves having to “upgrade” to a different set of tools that are now required for them just to be able to continue that exchange. One person’s loss of control may mean that many people lose control of their working environment, too. The domino effect that follows may result in an organisation transformed for the worse based only on the uninformed gut instincts of someone with the power to demand that something be done the apparently easy way.

Inconvenience: a crane operating over one pavement while sitting on the other, with a sign reading "please use the pavement on the other side"

Inconvenience: a crane operating over one pavement while sitting on the other, with a sign reading "please use the pavement on the other side"

Getting the Message Across

For those of us who want to see Free Software and open standards in organisations, the dangers of the top-down single vendor strategy are obvious, but other people may find it difficult to relate to the issues. There are, however, analogies that can be illustrative, and as I perused a publication related to my former employer I came across an interesting complaint that happens to nicely complement an analogy I had been considering for a while. The complaint in question is about some supplier management software that insists that bank account numbers can only have 18 digits at most, but this fails to consider the situation where payments to Russian and Chinese accounts might need account numbers with more than 18 digits, and the complainant vents his frustration at “the new super-elite of decision makers” who have decided that they know better than the people actually doing the work.

If that “super-elite” were to call all the shots, their solution would surely involve making everyone get an account with an account number that could only ever have 18 digits. “Not supported by your bank? Change bank! Not supported in your country? Change your banking country!” They might not stop there, either: why not just insist on everyone having an account at just one organisation-mandated bank? “Who cares if you don’t want a customer relationship with another bank? You want to get paid, don’t you?”

At one former employer of mine, setting up a special account at a particular bank was actually how things were done, but ignoring peculiarities related to the nature of certain kinds of institutions, making everyone needlessly conform through some dubiously justified, executive-imposed initiative whether it be requiring them to have an account with the organisation’s bank, or requiring them to use only certain vendor-sanctioned software (and as a consequence requiring them to buy certain vendor-sanctioned products so that they may have a chance of using them at work or to interact with their workplace from home) is an imposition too far. Rationalisation is a powerful argument for shaking things up, but it is often used by those who do not care how much it manages to transfer the inconvenience in an organisation to the individual and to other parties.

Bearing the Costs

We have seen how the organisational cost of short-sighted, buy-and-forget decision-making can end up being borne by those whose interests have been ignored or marginalised “for the good of the organisation”, and we can see how this can very easily impose costs across the whole organisation, too. But another aspect of this way of deciding things can also be costly: in the hurry to demonstrate the banishment of an organisational problem with a flourish, incremental solutions that might have dealt with the problem more effectively can become as marginalised as the influence of the people tasked with the job of seeing any eventual solution through. When people are loudly demanding improvements and solutions, an equally dramatic response probably does not involve reviewing the existing infrastructure, identifying areas that can provide significant improvement without significant inconvenience or significant additional costs, and committing to improve the existing solutions quietly and effectively.

Thus, when faced with disillusionment – that people may have decided for themselves that whatever it was that they did not like is now beyond redemption – decision-makers are apt to pander to such disillusionment by replacing any existing thing with something completely new. Especially if it reinforces their own blinkered view of an organisational problem or “confirms” what they “already know”, decision-makers may gladly embrace such dramatic acts as a demonstration of the resolve expected of a decisive leader as they stand to look good by visibly banishing the source of disillusionment. But when such pandering neglects relatively inexpensive, incremental improvements and instead incurs significant costs and disruptions for the organisation, one can justifiably question the motivations behind such dramatic acts and the level of competence brought to bear on resolving the original source of discomfort.

The electrical waste collection

The electrical waste collection

Mission Accomplished?

Thinking that putting down money with a single vendor will solve everybody’s problems, purging diversity from an organisation and stipulating the uniformity encouraged by that vendor, is an overly simplistic and even deluded approach to organisational change. Change in any organisation can be very expensive and must therefore be managed carefully. Change for the sake of change is therefore incredibly irresponsible. And change imposed to gratify the perception of change or progress, made on a superficial basis and incurring unnecessary and avoidable burdens within an organisation whilst risking that organisation’s independence and viability, is nothing other than indefensible.

Be wary of the “single vendor fixes it all” delusion, especially if all the signs point to a decision made at the highest levels of your organisation: it is the sign of the organisational panic button being pressed while someone declares “Mission Accomplished!” Because at the same time they will be thinking “We will have progress whatever the cost!” And you, not them, will be the one bearing the cost.

Packaging Kolab for Debian using pbuilder

Friday, November 15th, 2013

My recent excursion into Debian packaging with Kolab has involved a tour of lots of different tools and services, but it started out with a brief attempt to build the existing packages with pbuilder: a tool that has become fairly familiar to me in the process of experimenting with Debian packages and even contributing one to “Debian proper”. After some initial frustrations that prevented me from building packages using my normal workflow, I decided to familiarise myself with the infrastructure that the Kolab project itself uses to make packages, if only to reassure myself that the packages really could be built and didn’t require any special magic to do so. I won’t go into this because Timotheus has already done so in sufficient depth.

After some playing around with osc and the Development project in the Kolab OBS (Open Build Service), building packages, installing them in Debian root filesystems and User Mode Linux instances (administered by some scripts I’ve developed over the years), I persuaded myself to have another go at feeding the packages to pbuilder via the pdebuild tool, determined to overcome any build issues and to demonstrate that it could be done. One fairly good reason for doing this is that even though pbuilder-based builds can be sluggish as pbuilder decides to unpack an existing filesystem, install build dependencies, and do other housekeeping before actually building the package, it seems to be more efficient and quicker than osc, which I found took as long as 9 minutes before it was ready to build a relatively straightforward Python-based package. Another reason for going with pbuilder is that it is what the Debian project itself will be using, more or less, if – hopefully when – the packages get accepted back into Debian, whereas the OBS infrastructure seems to be based on other technologies for the management of the build environment.

Packages of the Future

One challenge posed by Kolab is that some of its packages depend on some of the other Kolab-provided packages when being built – those other packages are so-called “build dependencies” – but tools like pdebuild rely on such build dependencies already being available as installable packages from the Debian archive. For things like make and gcc, this isn’t a problem at all: they were packaged a very long time ago (although I suppose you could get caught out with very recent versions of such packages). But when a yet-to-be-submitted package is required as a build dependency for another package, the issue of satisfying that dependency arises, and this was something I hadn’t encountered before.

A perusal of the Debian Wiki provided a solution: after building the packages that the other ones rely upon, put them in a directory, expose them in a repository, and then make pbuilder consult that repository when deciding how it can satisfy those build dependencies. This involves three things:

  • A directory with newly built packages, obviously, together with the necessary package metadata.
  • A hook script that will refresh the metadata and perform the necessary update action that lets the pbuilder environment know about the packages.
  • A special configuration for pbuilder.

The Package Directory

At first, this will contain nothing at all, but as you add packages it will contain both .deb package files and the package metadata. We will call this directory deps.

The Hook Script

As the Debian Wiki page describes, a hook called D05deps can be placed in a directory called, say, hooks and populated with the following code:

(cd /path-to-kolab-packaging/deps; apt-ftparchive packages . > Packages)
apt-get update

I did find that the permissions on the hook file were crucial, fixing them as follows:

chmod a+x hooks/D05deps

Otherwise, no mention of the script will be made in the copious output from pbuilder and it will simply be ignored. I also experienced some initial problems with the package metadata, but running the first line of actual commands from the script and manually producing the metadata was enough to get pbuilder on the right track:

cd deps; apt-ftparchive packages . > Packages

After that, it didn’t have any difficulties seeing the new packages as I added them to the deps directory.

The Configuration File

All this has to do is to point to the deps and hooks directories. You can more or less copy the contents of /etc/pbuilderrc and add the following to it (customising it for your own choices, of course):

OTHERMIRROR="deb [trusted=yes] file:///path-to-kolab-packaging/deps ./"

Yes, there really isn’t anything different about this than the example on the Debian Wiki page. I put this configuration file alongside the deps and hooks directories and called it pbuilderrc.

Actually Building Packages

With the above extra stuff in place, the process of building packages is slightly different: you have to tell pbuilder to use this alternative configuration, and then you just hope that all the different aspects of it are consistent and that pbuilder is able to take notice of it. The command that will eventually be run inside a directory containing “Debianized” sources is the following:

pdebuild -- --distribution wheezy --override-config --configfile ../pbuilderrc

Obviously, the pbuilderrc file resides in the parent directory after you change into a package’s sources directory.

Build Order

Above, I mentioned that some packages depend on others in order to be built. Finding out which packages are affected involves consulting their build dependencies which are conveniently listed in their .dsc files. Doing the following permits a general overview to be obtained and the basis of a suitable build order to be worked out:

grep ^Build-Depends *.dsc

Obviously, it makes sense to start with packages that do not depend on others that are also being built for this exercise. Devising or discovering an automated approach for this is left as an exercise for the reader, but Kolab is relatively uncomplicated and I used the following build order:

python-icalendar pykolab libkolabxml libcalendaring libkolab kolab kolab-freebusy kolab-schema kolab-syncroton kolab-utils kolab-webadmin mozilla-ldap-sdk chwala irony pyasn1-modules php-http-request2 roundcubemail roundcubemail-plugin-contextmenu roundcubemail-plugin-dblog roundcubemail-plugin-threadingasdefault roundcubemail-plugins-kolab smarty3

The General Workflow

To obtain, unpack and build the packages I used the following workflow:

  1. Visit the package downloads page (found via the Development project’s repository overview) and obtain a list of package URLs.
  2. Get each package using dget from the devscripts package. This will probably give a warning about unsigned or unverifiable packages and not unpack the sources. (I suppose that importing the repository key using apt-key fixes this. One should obviously consider the risks and recommendations around downloading code from the Internet.)
  3. Unpack each package using dpkg-source. For example:
    dpkg-source -x python-icalendar_3.4-1.dsc
  4. Change into the source directory.
  5. Run the pdebuild command given above.
  6. Copy or move the resulting package files from /var/cache/pbuilder/result into the deps directory.
  7. Optional but tidy: move the other artefacts of building from the parent directory into some other place for future reference.

There are probably much more efficient and cleaner ways of building lots of packages, but this allowed me to inspect them and to consider a few changes.

Making Changes

I took the opportunity to make some changes to the python-icalendar package because I saw that it wanted me to install python-setuptools before pdebuild would even launch pbuilder. I have little confidence in setuptools generally and would prefer not to have it on my system, and it is an unfortunate but recurring phenomenon that one finds the script commonly used for the preparation or installation of Python software packages using setuptools when its functionality only requires the older and less disruptive distutils library. Regardless of whether such changes are desired in the eventual Kolab packaging, I took the opportunity to investigate how changes should be made to the package.

Modern Debian packages prefer such “upstream patching” – where the code being changed originates with the actual developers of the software, as opposed to people packaging it for different distributions – to be done using a tool called quilt. I have some experience using quilt for my previous packaging work, but it’s easy to forget how to use it. Fortunately, the Debian Wiki came to the rescue once again. Here’s what I did in the sources directory for the package:

quilt new # tell quilt about my patch
quilt add # tell quilt that I will patch
# Now, I edited to replace setuptools with distutils.
quilt refresh # update the patch within quilt
quilt pop -a # go back to the way everything was (but remember the patch for later)

When running pdebuild, the tool will notice such patches and apply them. Upon finishing they should be provided in a file containing all the necessary patches that allow the software to be built as a package. In this case, a file called python-icalendar_3.4-1.debian.tar.gz was produced.

One or two things are probably necessary to make this work:

  • A suitable quilt configuration as described on the Debian Wiki page referenced above.
  • A suitable debian/source/format file containing the 3.0 (quilt) value.

What Next?

Some of the previously encountered pitfalls had very little to do with the actual packaging of Kolab in terms of getting the software installed, but were more to do with the way it behaved once configured (and perhaps how the configuration gets done). I intend to look a bit more closely at the configuration process and to see if some of the awkward situations that may arise can’t be diagnosed and remedied by some helpful enhancements to the tools. On the way, I expect to find areas of improvement in the ways some things are done – that’s just the way things are with software – but with regard to the packaging itself most of the hard work has already been done and it seems to hold up rather well. So thanks are obviously due to Paul and Jeroen (and others) for allowing me to join in at this fairly late stage in the game.

Notions of Progress on the Free Software Desktop

Thursday, November 7th, 2013

Once again, discussion about Free Software communities is somewhat derailed by reflections on the state of the Free Software desktop. To be fair to participants in the discussion, the original observations about communities were so unspecific that people would naturally wonder which communities were being referenced.

Usability and Accessibility

As always, frustrating elements of recent Free Software desktop environments were brought up for criticism and evaluation. One of them concerned the “plasmoid” enhancements of KDE 4 (or KDE Plasma Desktop as it is known according to the rebranding of KDE assets) which are often regarded as superfluous distractions from the work of perfecting the classic desktop environment. Amidst all this, the “folder view” plasmoid (or desktop widget) in particular came under scrutiny. As I understand it, the “folder view” is just a panel or window that groups icons in a region on the desktop background, and I acknowledged that it certainly represents an improvement over managing icons on a normal desktop, but that it can also confuse people when they accidentally close the folder view – easy to do with a stray mouse click – leaving them to wonder where their icons went.

Such matters of usability make me wonder how well tested some of the concepts employed in these environments really are, despite insistences that usability experts have been involved and that non-experts in the field of usability are unable to see the forest for the trees. From my own experiences, I feel that the developers would really benefit from doing phone support for their wares, especially with users who haven’t learned all the fancy terminology and so must describe what they see from first principles and be told what to do at a similar level. Even better: such support should be undertaken from memory and not sitting in front of a similarly configured computer.

Although it is a somewhat separate discipline with different constraints, I also suspect that such “over the phone” exercises might help accessibility as well. An inexperienced user may provide different information to that provided by something like a screen reader, where the former may struggle to articulate concepts and the latter may merely describe the environment according to prescribed terms, and where the former may be able to use more flexible powers of description whereas the latter can only rely on the cooperation of other programs to populate a simplistic description of the state of the environment, but the exercise of being a person cut off from the rich graphical scenery and their familiar interaction mechanisms might put the usability and accessibility of the software into perspective for the developers.

The Measure of Progress

But back to the Free Software desktop in general, if only to contemplate notions of progress and to consider whether lessons really have been learned, or whether people would rather not think about the things which went wrong, labelling them as “finished business” or “water under the bridge” and urging people not to bring such matters up again. One participant remarked about how it took six years from 2005 to 2011 for KDE 4 to become as usable as its predecessor. A response to this indicated that this was actually “fantastic” progress given that Google used as much time to make Android “decent”.

Fantastic it may be, but we should not consider the endeavour as a software development project in isolation, with the measure of success being that something was created from nothing in six short years. Indeed, we must consider what was already there – absolutely not nothing – and how the result of the development measures up against that earlier system. As far as getting Free Software in front of people and building on earlier achievements are concerned, those six years can almost be considered six lost years. Nobody should be patting themself on the back upon hearing that someone in 2013 can move from KDE 3 to KDE 4 and feel that at least they didn’t lose much functionality.

The Role of Applications

It was also noted that KDE development now focuses more on application development than on the environment itself. One must therefore ask where we are with regard to parity with the suite of applications running under KDE 3. Here, I can only describe my own experiences, but this should be flattering to any constrained selection of updated applications because of my own rather conservative application choices.

Kontact is usable because I imagine various companies needed it to be usable to stay in business (and even then I don’t know the story of the diversions via Nepomuk and other PIM initiatives that could have endangered that application’s viability); Digikam is usable because the developers remained interested in improving the software and even maintained the KDE 3 version for a while; Okular has picked up where KPDF left off; K3B still works much the same as before. There are presumably regressions and improvements in all these: Kontact, for instance, is much slower in certain areas such as message sorting, but it probably has more robust and coherent PGP and S/MIME support than its predecessor (which may have been suffering from lack of maintenance at both the project and distribution level).

Meanwhile, Amarok has become a disaster with an incoherent interface involving lots of “in the know” controls, and after it stopped playback mid-track for the nth time and needed a complete restart to get sound back, I switched to Minirok out of desperation. Other applications took a permanent holiday, such as Kopete which I don’t miss because my IRC needs are covered by Konversation.

Stuff like Konqueror is still around, despite being under threat of complete replacement by Dolphin, although it has picked up the little “+” and “-” controls that pervade KDE now. Such controls confuse various classes of user through poor visual contrast (a tiny symbol in red or green superimposed on a multicolour icon!) while demanding from such users better than average motor skills (“to open the document aim at the tiny area but not the tiny area within the tiny area”).

Change You Can Believe In?

You wouldn’t think that I appreciate the work done on the Free Software desktop, but I do. What frustrates me and a lot of other people, however, is the way that things that should have been “behind the scenes” infrastructure improvements (Qt 3 being superseded by Qt 4, for instance) that could have been undertaken whilst preserving continuity for users have instead been thrust at those users in the form of unnecessary decisions about which functionality they can afford to lose in order to have a supported and secure system that will not gradually fall apart over time. (Not that KDE is unique in this respect, consider the Python 2 to Python 3 transition and the disruption even such a leisurely transition can cause.)

Exposing change to a group of people creates costs for those people, and when those people have other things than computing as the principal focus in their lives, such change can have damaging effects on their continued use of the software and on the quality of their lives. Following the latest trends, discovering the newest software, or just discovering how their existing software functions since the last vendor-initiated update are all distractions for people who just want to sit down, do some things on the computer, and then go back to their lives. In today’s gadget-pushing society, the productivity benefits of personal computing are being eroded by a fanaticism for showing off new and different things mostly for the sake of them being, well, new and different. Bored children may enjoy the fire-hose of new “apps”, tricks and gadgets, but that shouldn’t mean that everybody else has to be made to enjoy it as well or be considered backward “technophobes” who “don’t understand” or “won’t embrace” new technology.

One can argue that by failing to shield users from the cost of change, especially when the level of functionality remains largely similar, Free Software desktop developers have imperilled their own mission with the result that they now have to make up lost ground in the struggle to get people to use their software. But even to those developers who don’t care about such things, the other criticism that could be levelled against them might be a more delicate matter and more difficult to reconcile with their technical reputation: churning up change and making others deal with it can arguably be regarded as bad software project management and, indeed, bad project management in general.

Maybe such considerations also have something to say about the direction any given community might choose to follow, and whether bold new ideas should be embraced without a thorough consideration of the consequences.

Neo900: And they’re off!

Friday, November 1st, 2013

Having mentioned the Neo900 smartphone initiative previously, it seems pertinent to note that it has moved beyond the discussion phase and into the fundraising phase. Compared to the Ubuntu Edge, the goals are fairly modest – 25000 euros versus tens of millions of dollars – but the way this money will be spent has been explained in somewhat more detail than appeared to be the case for the Ubuntu Edge. Indeed, the Neo900 initiative has released a feasibility study document describing the challenges confronting the project: it contains a lot more detail than the typical “we might experience some setbacks” disclaimer on the average Kickstarter campaign page.

It’s also worth noting that as the Neo900 inherits a lot from the GTA04, as the title of the feasibility study document indicates when it refers to the device as the “GTA04b7”, and as the work is likely to be done largely within the auspices of the existing GTA04 endeavour, the fundraising is being done by Golden Delicious (the originators of the GTA04) themselves. From reading the preceding discussion around the project, popular fundraising sites appear to have conditions or restrictions that did not appeal to the project participants: Kickstarter has geographical limitations (coincidentally involving the signatory nations of the increasingly notorious UKUSA Agreement), and most fundraising sites also take a share of the raised funds. Such trade-offs may make sense for campaigns wanting to reach a large audience (and who know how to promote themselves to get prominence on such sites), but if you know who your audience is and how to reach them, and if you already have a functioning business, it could make sense to cut the big campaign sites out of the loop.

It will certainly be interesting to see what happens next. An Openmoko successor coming to the rescue of a product made by the mobile industry’s previously most dominant force: that probably isn’t what some people expected, either at Openmoko or at that once-dominant vendor.