Paul Boddie's Free Software-related blog

Archive for May, 2015

Migrating the Mailman Wiki from Confluence to MoinMoin

Tuesday, May 12th, 2015

Having recently seen an article about the closure of a project featuring that project’s usage of proprietary tools from Atlassian – specifically JIRA and Confluence – I thought I would share my own experiences from the migration of another project’s wiki site that had been using Confluence as a collaborative publishing tool.

Quite some time ago now, a call for volunteers was posted to the FSF blog, asking for people familiar with Python to help out with a migration of the Mailman Wiki from Confluence to MoinMoin. Subsequently, Barry Warsaw followed up on the developers’ mailing list for Mailman with a similar message. Unlike the project at the start of this article, GNU Mailman was (and remains) a vibrant Free Software project, but a degree of dissatisfaction with Confluence, combined with the realisation that such a project should be using, benefiting from, and contributing to Free Software tools, meant that such a migration was seen as highly desirable, if not essential.

Up and Away

Initially, things started off rather energetically, and Bradley Dean initiated the process of fact-finding around Confluence and the Mailman project’s usage of it. But within a few months, things apparently became noticeably quieter. My own involvement probably came about through seeing the ConfluenceConverter page on the MoinMoin Wiki, looking at the development efforts, and seeing if I couldn’t nudge the project along by pitching in with notes about representing Confluence markup format features in the somewhat more conventional MoinMoin wiki syntax. Indeed, it appears that my first contribution to this work occurred as early as late May 2011, but I was more or less content to let the project participants get on with their efforts to understand how Confluence represents its data, how Confluence exposes resources on a wiki, and so on.

But after a while, it occurred to me that the volunteers probably had other things to do and that progress had largely stalled. Although there wasn’t very much code available to perform concrete migration-related tasks, Bradley had gained some solid experience with the XML format employed by exported Confluence data, and such experience when combined with my own experiences dealing with very large XML files in my day job suggested an approach that had worked rather well with such large files: performing an extraction of the essential information, including identifiers and references that communicate the actual structure of the information, as opposed to the hierarchical structure of the XML data itself. With the data available in a more concise and flexible form, it can then be processed in a more convenient fashion, and within a few weeks I had something ready to play with.

With a day job and other commitments, it isn’t usually possible to prioritise volunteer projects like this, and I soon discovered that some other factors were involved: technological progress, and the tendency for proprietary software and services to be upgraded. What had initially involved the conversion of textual content from one markup format to another now seemed to involve the conversion from two rather different markup formats. All the effort documenting the original Confluence format now seemed to be almost peripheral if not superfluous: any current content on the Mailman Wiki would now be in a completely different format. And volunteer energy seemed to have run out.

A Revival

Time passed. And then the Mailman developers noticed that the Confluence upgrade had made the wiki situation even less bearable (as indeed other Confluence users had noticed and complained about), and that the benefits of such a solution were being outweighed by the inconveniences of the platform. And it was at this point that I realised that it was worthwhile continuing the migration effort: it is bad enough that people feel constrained by a proprietary platform over which they have little control, but it is even worse when it appears that they will have to abandon their content and start over with little or no benefit from all the hard work they have invested in creating and maintaining that content in the first place.

And with that, I started the long process of trying to support not only both markup formats, but also all the features likely to have been used by the Mailman project and those using its wiki. Some might claim that Confluence is “powerful” by supporting a multitude of seemingly exotic features (page relationships, comments, “spaces”, blogs, as well as various kinds of extensions), but many of these features are rarely used or never actually used at all. Meanwhile, as many migration projects can attest, if one inadvertently omits some minor feature that someone regards as essential, one risks never hearing the end of it, especially if the affected users have been soaking up the propaganda from their favourite proprietary vendor (which was thankfully never a factor in this particular situation).

Despite the “long tail” of feature support, we were able to end 2012 with some kind of overview of the scope of the remaining work. And once again I was able to persuade the concerned parties that we should focus on MoinMoin 1.x not 2.x, which has proved to be the correct decision given the still-ongoing status of the latter even now in 2015. Of course, I didn’t at that point anticipate how much longer the project would take…


Over the next few months, I found time to do more work and to keep the Mailman development community informed again and again, which is a seemingly minor aspect of such efforts but is essential to reassure people that things really are happening: the Mailman community had, in fact, forgotten about the separate mailing list for this project long before activity on it had subsided. One benefit of this was to get feedback on how things were looking as each iteration of the converted content was made available, and with something concrete to look at, people tend to remember things that matter to them that they wouldn’t otherwise think of in any abstract discussion about the content.

In such processes, other things tend to emerge that initially aren’t priorities but which have to be dealt with eventually. One of the stated objectives was to have a full history, meaning that all the edits made to the original content would need to be preserved, and for an authentic record, these edits would need to preserve both timestamp and author information. This introduced complications around the import of converted content – it being no longer sufficient to “replay” edits and have them assume the timestamp of the moment they were added to the new wiki – as well as the migration and management of user profiles. Particularly this latter area posed a problem: the exported data from Confluence only contained page (and related) content, not user profile information.

Now, one might not have expected user details to be exportable anyway due to potential security issues with people having sufficient privileges to request a data dump directly from Confluence and then to be able to obtain potentially sensitive information about other users, but this presented another challenge where the migration of an entire site is concerned. On this matter, a very pragmatic approach was taken: any user profile pages (of which there were thankfully very few) were retrieved directly over the Web from the existing site; the existence of user profiles was deduced from the author metadata present in the actual exported wiki content. Since we would be asking existing users to re-enable their accounts on the new wiki once it became active, and since we would be avoiding the migration of spammer accounts, this approach seemed to be a reasonable compromise between convenience and completeness.

Getting There

By November 2013, the end was in sight, with coverage of various “actions” supported by Confluence also supported in the migrated wiki. Such actions are a good example of how things that are on the edges of a migration can demand significant amounts of time. For instance, Confluence supports a PDF export action, and although one might suggest that people just print a page to file from their browser, choosing PDF as the output format, there are reasonable arguments to be made that a direct export might also be desirable. Thus, after a brief survey of existing options for MoinMoin, I decided it would be useful to provide one myself. The conversion of Confluence content had also necessitated the use of more expressive table syntax. Had I not been sufficiently interested in implementing improved table facilities in MoinMoin prior to this work, I would have needed to invest quite a bit of effort in this seemingly peripheral activity.

Again, time passed. Much of the progress occurred off-list at this point. In fact, a degree of confusion, miscommunication and elements of other factors conspired to delay the availability of the infrastructure on which the new wiki would be deployed. Already in October 2013 there had been agreement about hosting within the infrastructure, but the matter seemed to stall despite Barry Warsaw trying to push it along in February and April 2014. Eventually, after complaining from me on the PSF members’ mailing list at the end of May, some motion occurred on the matter and in July the task of provisioning the necessary resources began.

After returning from a long vacation in August, the task of performing the final migration and actually deploying the content could finally begin. Here, I was able to rely on expert help from Mark Sapiro who not only checked the results of the migration thoroughly, but also configured various aspects of the mail system functionality (one of the benefits of participating in a mail-oriented project, I guess), and even enhanced my code to provide features that I had overlooked. By September, we were already playing with the migrated content and discussing how the site would be administered and protected from spam and vandalism. By October, Barry was already confident enough to pre-announce the migrated site!

At Long Last

Alas, things stalled again for a while, perhaps due to other commitments of some of the volunteers needed to make the final transition occur, but in January the new Mailman Wiki was finally announced. But things didn’t stop there. One long-standing volunteer, Jim Tittsler, decided that the visual theme of the new wiki would be improved if it were made to match the other Mailman Web resources, and so he went and figured out how to make a MoinMoin theme to do the job! The new wiki just wouldn’t look as good, despite all the migrated content and the familiarity of MoinMoin, if it weren’t for the special theme that Jim put together.

The all-new Mailman Wiki with Jim Tittsler's theme

The all-new Mailman Wiki with Jim Tittsler's theme

There have been a few things to deal with after deploying the new wiki. Spam and vandalism have not been a problem because we have implemented a very strict editing policy where people have to request editing access. However, this does not prevent people from registering accounts, even if they never get to use them to do anything. To deal with this, we enabled textcha support for new account registrations, and we also enabled e-mail verification of new accounts. As a result, the considerable volume of new user profiles that were being created (potentially hundreds every hour) has been more or less eliminated.

It has to be said that throughout the process, once it got started in earnest, the Mailman development community has been fantastic, with constructive feedback and encouragement throughout. I have had disappointing things to say about the experience of being a volunteer with regard to certain projects and initiatives, but the Mailman project is not that kind of project. Within the limits of their powers, the Mailman custodians have done their best to enable this work and to see it through to the end.

Some Lessons

I am sure that offers of “for free” usage of certain proprietary tools and services are made in a genuinely generous way by companies like Atlassian who presumably feel that they are helping to make Free Software developers more productive. And I can only say that those interactions I experienced with Contegix, who were responsible for hosting the Confluence instance through which the old Mailman Wiki was deployed, were both constructive and polite. Nevertheless, proprietary solutions are ultimately disempowering: they take away the control over the working environment that users and developers need to have; they direct improvement efforts towards themselves and away from Free Software solutions; they also serve as a means of dissuading people from adopting competing Free Software products by giving an indication that only they can meet the rigorous demands of the activity concerned.

I saw a position in the Norwegian public sector not so long ago for someone who would manage and enhance a Confluence installation. While it is not for me to dictate the tools people choose to do their work, it seems to me that such effort would be better spent enhancing Free Software products and infrastructure instead of remedying the deficiencies of a tool over which the customer ultimately has no control, to which the customer is bound, and where the expertise being cultivated is relevant only to a single product for as long as that product is kept viable by its vendor. Such strategic mistakes occur all too frequently in the Norwegian public sector, with its infatuation with proprietary products and services, but those of us not constrained by such habits can make better choices when choosing tools for our own endeavours.

I encourage everyone to support Free Software tools when choosing solutions for your projects. It may be the case that such tools may not at first offer precisely the features you might be looking for, and you might be tempted to accept an offer of a “for free” product or to use a no-cost “cloud” service, and such things may appear to offer an easier path when you might otherwise be confronted with a choice of hosting solutions and deployment issues. But there are whole communities out there who can offer advice and will support their Free Software project, and there are Free Software organisations who will help you deploy your choice of tools, perhaps even having it ready to use as part of their existing infrastructure.

In the end, by embracing Free Software, you get the control you need over your content in order to manage it sustainably. Surely that is better than having some random company in charge, with the ever-present risk of them one day deciding to discontinue their service and/or, with barely enough notice, discard your data.

Leaving the PSF

Sunday, May 10th, 2015

It didn’t all start with a poorly-considered April Fools’ joke about hosting a Python conference in Cuba, but the resulting private mailing list discussion managed to persuade me not to continue as a voting member of the Python Software Foundation (PSF). In recent years, upon returning from vacation, discovering tens if not hundreds of messages whipping up a frenzy about some topic supposedly pertinent to the activities of the PSF, and reading through such messages as if I should inform my own position on the matter, was undoubtedly one of the chores of being a member. This time, my vacation plans were slightly unusual, so I was at least spared the surprise of getting the bulk of people’s opinions in one big serving.

I was invited to participate in the PSF at a time when it was an invitation-only affair. My own modest contributions to the EuroPython conference were the motivating factor, and it would seem that I hadn’t alienated enough people for my nomination to be opposed. (This cannot be said for some other people who did eventually become members as well after their opponents presumably realised the unkindness of their ways.) Being asked to participate was an honour, although I remarked at the time that I wasn’t sure what contribution I might make to such an organisation. Becoming a Fellow of the FSFE was an active choice I made myself because I align myself closely with the agenda the FSFE chooses to pursue, but the PSF is somewhat more vague or more ambivalent about its own agenda: promoting Python is all very well, but should the organisation promote proprietary software that increases Python adoption, or would this undermine the foundations on which Python was built and is sustained? Being invited to participate in an organisation with often unclear objectives combines a degree of passivity with an awareness that some of the decisions being taken may well contradict some of the principles I have actively chosen to support in other organisations. Such as the FSFE, of course.

Don’t get me wrong: there are a lot of vital activities performed within the PSF. For instance, the organisation has a genuine need to enforce its trademarks and to stop other people from claiming the Python name as their own, and the membership can indeed assist in such matters, as can the wider community. But looking at my archives of the private membership mailing list, a lot of noise has been produced on other, more mundane matters. For a long time, it seemed as if the only business of the PSF membership – as opposed to the board who actually make the big decisions – was to nominate and vote on new members, thus giving the organisation the appearance of only really existing for its own sake. Fortunately, organisational reform has made the matter of recruiting members largely obsolete, and some initiatives have motivated other, more meaningful activities. However, I cannot be the only person who has noted that such activities could largely be pursued outside the PSF and within the broader community instead, as indeed these activities typically are.


Some of the more divisive topics that have caused the most noise have had some connection with PyCon: the North American Python conference that mostly replaced the previous International Python Conference series (from back when people thought that conferences had to be professionally organised and run, in contrast to PyCon and most, if not all, other significant Python conferences today). Indeed, this lack of separation between the PSF and PyCon has been a significant concern of mine. I will probably never attend a PyCon, partly because it resides in North America as a physical event, partly because its size makes it completely uninteresting to me as an attendee, and largely because I increasingly find the programme uninteresting for a variety of other reasons. When the PSF members’ time is spent discussing or at least exposed to the discussion of PyCon business, it can just add to the burden of membership for those who wish to focus on the supposed core objectives of the organisation.

What may well be worse, however, is that PyCon exposes the PSF to substantial liability issues. As the conference headed along a trajectory of seemingly desirable and ambitious growth, it collided with the economic downturn caused by the global financial crisis of 2008, incurring a not insignificant loss. Fortunately, this outcome has not since been repeated, and the organisation had sufficient liquidity to avoid any serious consequences. Some have argued that it was precisely because profits from previous years’ conferences had been accumulated that the organisation was able to pay its bills, but such good fortune cannot explain away the fundamental liability and the risks it brings to the viability of the organisation, especially if fortune happens not to be on its side in future.


In recent times, I have been more sharply focused on the way volunteers are treated by organisations who rely on their services to fulfil their mission. Sadly, the PSF has exhibited a poor record in various respects on this matter. Once upon a time, the Python language Web site was redesigned under contract, but the burden of maintenance fell on community volunteers. Over time, discontentment forced the decision to change the technology and a specification was drawn up under a degree of consultation. Unfortunately, the priorities of certain stakeholders – that is, community volunteers doing a fair amount of hard work in their own time – were either ignored or belittled, leaving them confronted with either having to adapt to a suboptimal workflow not of their own choosing, as well as spending time and energy developing that workflow, or just quitting and leaving it to other people to tidy up the mess that those other people (and the hired contractors) had made.

Understandably, the volunteers quit, leaving a gap in the Web site functionality that took a year to reinstate. But what was most disappointing was the way those volunteers were branded as uncooperative and irresponsible in an act of revisionism by those who clearly failed to appreciate the magnitude of the efforts of those volunteers in the first place. Indeed, the views of the affected volunteers were even belittled when efforts were championed to finally restore the functionality, with it being stated by one motivated individual that the history of the problem was not of his concern. When people cannot themselves choose the basis of their own involvement in a volunteer-run organisation without being vilified for letting people down or for “holding the organisation to ransom”, the latter being a remarkable accusation given the professionalism that was actually shown in supporting a transition to other volunteers, one must question whether such an organisation deserves to attract any volunteers at all.


As discussion heated up over the PyCon Cuba affair, the usual clash of political views emerged, with each side accusing the other of ignorance and not understanding the political or cultural situation, apparently blinkered by their own cultural and political biases. I remember brazen (and ill-informed) political advocacy being a component in one of the Python community blogging “planets” before I found the other one, back when there was a confusing level of duplication between the two and when nobody knew which one was the “real” one (which now appears to consist of a lot of repetition and veiled commercial advertising), and I find it infuriating when people decide to use such matters as an excuse to lecture others and to promote their own political preferences.

I have become aware of a degree of hostility within the PSF towards the Free Software Foundation, with the latter being regarded as a “political” organisation, perhaps due to hard feelings experienced when the FSF had to educate the custodians of Python about software licensing (which really came about in the first place because of the way Python development had been moved around, causing various legal representatives to play around with the licensing, arguably to make their own mark and to stop others getting all the credit). And I detect a reluctance in some quarters to defend software freedom within the PSF, with a reluctance to align the PSF with other entities that support software and digital freedoms. At least the FSF can be said to have an honest political agenda, where those who support it more or less know where they stand.

In contrast, the PSF seems to cultivate all kinds of internal squabbling and agenda-setting: true politics in the worst sense of the word. On one occasion I was more or less told that my opinion was not welcome or, indeed, could ever be of interest on a topic related to diversity. Thankfully, diversity politics moved to a dedicated mailing list and I was thereafter mostly able to avoid being told by another Anglo-Saxon male that my own perspectives didn’t matter on that or on any other topic. How it is that someone I don’t actually know can presume to know in any detail what perspectives or experiences I might have to offer on any matter remains something of a mystery to me.

Looking through my archives, there appears to be a lot of noise, squabbling, quipping, and recrimination over the last five years or so. In the midst of the recent finger-wagging, someone dared to mention that maybe Cubans, wherever they are, might actually deserve to have a conference. Indeed, other places were mentioned where the people who live there, through no fault of their own, would also be the object of political grandstanding instead of being treated like normal people wanting to participate in a wider community.

I mostly regard April Fools’ jokes as part of a tedious tradition, part of the circus that distracts people away from genuine matters of concern, perhaps even an avenue of passive aggression in certain circles, a way to bully people and then insist – as cowards do – that it was “just a joke”. The lack of a separation of the PSF’s interests combined with the allure of the circus conspired to make fools out of the people involved in creating the joke and of many in the accompanying debate. I find myself uninterested in spending my own time indulging such distractions, especially when those distractions are products of flaws in the organisation that nobody wishes to fix, and when there are more immediate and necessary activities to pursue in the wider arena of Free Software that, as a movement in its own right, some in the PSF practically refuse to acknowledge.


Leaving the PSF won’t really change any of my commitments, but it will at least reduce the level of background noise I have to deal with. Such an underwhelming and unfortunate assessment is something the organisation will have to rectify in time if it wishes to remain relevant and to deserve the continued involvement of its members. I do have confidence in some of the reform and improvement processes being conducted by volunteers with too little time of their own to pursue them, and I hope that they make the organisation a substantially better and more effective one, as they continue to play to an audience of people with much to say but, more often than not, little to add.

I would have been tempted to remain in the PSF and to pursue various initiatives if the organisation were a multiplier of effect for any given input of effort. Instead, it currently acts as a divider of effect for all the effort one would apparently need to put in to achieve anything. That isn’t how any organisation, let alone one relying on volunteer time and commitment, should be functioning.

A Footnote

On political matters and accusations of ignorance being traded, my own patience is wearing thin indeed, and this probably nudged me into finally making this decision. It probably doesn’t help that I recently made a trip to Britain where election season has been in full swing, with unashamed displays of wilful idiocy openly paraded on a range of topics, indulged by the curated ignorance of the masses, with the continued destruction of British society, nature and the economy looking inevitable as the perpetrators insist they know best now and will undoubtedly in the future protest their innocence when challenged on the legacy of their ruinous rule, adopting the “it wasn’t me” manner of a petulant schoolchild so befitting of the basis of the nepotism that got most of them where they are today.

On Python’s Type Annotation Strategy

Thursday, May 7th, 2015

Once again, I was reading an article, became tempted to comment, and then found myself writing such a long response that I felt it would be better here. (The article is initially for subscribers of, with which I have a subscription thanks to their generosity in giving FSFE Fellows access upon their Fellowship renewal. The article will eventually become available to everyone after one week, which is the site’s policy. Maybe this blog post will encourage you to read the article, either eventually or as a subscriber.)

It was asserted that Haskell – a statically-typed language – doesn’t need type annotations because its type inference mechanisms are usually good enough. But generally, functional programming languages have effective type inference because of other constraints described by the author of the program. Now, Python could also benefit from such an approach if the language developers were willing to concede a few important properties of the language, but up to now the view has been that if a single property of Python is sacrificed then “it isn’t Python”. That’s why PyPy has had to pursue full compatibility, why the Nuitka author (who has done a heroic job despite detractors claiming it isn’t a worthwhile job) is trying to provide full compatibility, and why things like Cython and Shedskin get pushed to one side and/or ignored by everybody as they keep adding more stuff to the language themselves, which actually isn’t going to help make programs more predictable for the most part.

In the debate, an apparently irritated BDFL was served up a statement of his own from twelve years previously on the topic of Python no longer being Python once people start to change the syntax of the language to meet new needs. What type annotations risk is Python, as people read it, becoming something very different to what they are used to and what they expect. Look at some of the examples of type annotations and apart from the shapes of the brackets, you could start to think you were looking at parameterised template code written in C++. Python’s strength is the way you can write generic code that will work as long as the values you give a part of the program can support the operations being done, and the way that non-compliant values are properly rejected through exceptions being raised. If everybody starts writing “int, int, int” everywhere, the re-usability of code will really suffer; if people still want to express the type constraints properly, the conciseness of the code will really suffer because the type annotations will be necessarily complicated.

I think the BDFL has heard too many complaints about Python programs crashing over the years, but nobody has given him a better strategy than type annotations/declarations for dealing with such criticism. But then again, the dominant conservatism of Python language and CPython implementation development has perhaps resulted in that group being ill-equipped or ill-positioned to offer anything better. Personally, I see the necessary innovation coming from beyond the core development community, but then again, my own perspective is coloured by my own experiences and disappointments with the direction of Python.

Maybe progress – and a satisfactory remedy for negative perceptions of Python program reliability – will only be made when everybody finally has the debate about what Python really is that so many have tried to avoid having over the years. And no: “exactly what CPython 3.x happens to support” is not – and never has been – a valid circuit-breaker on that particular debate.

International Day Against DRM

Wednesday, May 6th, 2015

A discussion on the International Day Against DRM got my attention, and instead of replying on the site in question, I thought I’d write something about it here. The assertion was that “this war has been lost“, to which it was noted that “ownership isn’t for everyone”.

True enough: people are becoming conditioned to accept that they can enjoy nice things but not have any control of them or, indeed, any right to secure them for themselves. So, you effectively have the likes of Spotify effectively reinventing commercial radio where the interface is so soul-crushingly awful that it’s almost more convenient to have to call the radio station to request that they play a track. Or at least it was when I was confronted with it on someone’s smartphone fairly recently.

Meanwhile, the ignorant will happily trumpet the corporate propaganda claiming that those demanding digital rights are “communists”, when the right to own things to enjoy on your own terms has actually been taken away by those corporations and their pocket legislators. Maybe people should remember that when they’re next out shopping for gadgets or, heaven forbid, voting in a public election.

An Aside on Music

Getting older means that one can happily and justifiably regard a lot of new cultural output as inferior to what came before, which means that if one happened to stop buying music when DRM got imposed, deciding not to bother with new music doesn’t create such a big problem after all. I have plenty of legitimately purchased music to listen to already, and I didn’t need to have the potential enjoyment of any new work inconvenienced by only being able to play that work on certain devices or on somebody else’s terms.

Naturally, the music industry blames the decline in new music sales on “piracy”, but in fact people just got used to getting their music in more convenient ways, or they decided that they already have enough music and don’t really need any more. I remember how some people would buy a CD or two every weekend just as a treat or to have something new to listen to, and the music industry made a very nice living from this convenient siphoning of society’s disposable income, but that was just a bubble: the prices were low enough for people to not really miss the money, but the prices were also high enough and provided generous-enough margins for the music industry to make a lot of money from such casual purchasers while they could.

Note that I emphasised “potential” above. That’s another thing that the music business got away with for years: the loyalty of their audiences. How many people bought new material from an artist they liked only to discover that it wasn’t as good as they’d hoped? After a while, people just lose interest. This despite the effective state subsidy of the music business through public broadcasters endlessly and annoyingly playing and promoting that industry’s proprietary content. And there is music from even a few years ago that you wouldn’t be able to persuade anyone to sell you any more. It is like they don’t want your money, or at least if it is not being handed over on precisely their terms, which for a long time now has seemed to involve the customer going back and paying them again and again for something they already bought (under threat of legal penalties for “format shifting” in order to compel such repeat business).

It isn’t a surprise that the focus now is on music (and video) streaming and that actually buying media to play offline is becoming harder and harder. The focus of the content industries is on making it more and more difficult to acquire their content in ways that make it possible to experience that content on sustainable terms. Just as standard music CDs became corrupted with DRM mechanisms that bring future access to the content into doubt, so have newer technologies been encumbered with inconvenient and illegitimate mechanisms to deny people legitimate access. And as the campaign against DRM notes, some of the outcomes are simply discriminatory and shameful.

Our Legacy

Even content that has not been “protected” has proven difficult to recover simply due to technological progress and material, cultural and intellectual decay. It would appal many people that anyone would put additional barriers around content just to maximise revenues when the risk is that the “protectors” of such content will either inadvertently (their competence not being particularly noted) or deliberately (their vindictiveness being especially noted) consign that content to the black hole of prehistory just to stop anyone else actually enjoying it without them benefiting from the act. In some cases, one would think that content destruction is really what the supposed guardians of the content actually want, especially when there’s no more easy money to be made.

Of course, such profiteers don’t actually care about things like cultural legacy or the historical record, but society should care about such things. Regardless of who paid for something to be made – and frequently it was the artist, with the publishers only really offering financing that would most appropriately be described as “predatory” – such content is part of our culture and our legacy. That is why we should resist DRM, we should not support its proponents when buying devices and content or when electing our representatives, and it is why we should try and limit copyright terms so that legacy content may stand a chance of being recovered and responsibly archived.

We owe it to ourselves and to future generations to resist DRM.