Paul Boddie's Free Software-related blog


Archive for January, 2014

The Current Kolab Package Dependency Graph

Sunday, January 26th, 2014

A few weeks ago, I published a suggested dependency arrangement for Kolab in Debian. For completeness, here is a reasonably nice diagram showing the dependency arrangement used by the existing “vendor” packages:

The dependencies used by the current "vendor" packages for Kolab

The dependencies used by the current "vendor" packages for Kolab

As noted before, the experiment I have been performing reorganises the packages so that they can be configured one at a time, and I even managed to get the debconf system to ask the user any necessary installation-related questions.

(Once again, the slightly fancier than normal output is thanks to the notugly.xsl stylesheet – described here – and updated further by myself to fix a few things that seemed to go wrong. At some point, I’ll try and send my changes to vidarh and see if he likes them.)

Når man fokuserer på merkevarer og ikke standarder

Friday, January 24th, 2014

Det var interessant å lese et leserbrev i Uniforum med tittelen “Digitale samarbeidsverktøy i undervisning“: noe som trykker alle de riktige knappene i dagens akademiske landskap med et økende fokus på nettbasert opplæring, bredere tilgang til kurs, og mange andre ting som kanskje motiveres mer av “prestisje” og “å kapre kunder” enn å øke generell tilgjengelighet til en institusjons kunnskap og ekspertise. Brevforfatterne beskriver utbredt bruk av videokonferanseløsninger og skryter på en proprietær løsning som de tilsynelatende liker ganske godt, og henviser til universitetets anbefalinger for tekniske løsninger. Etter at man graver litt til å finne disse anbefalingene ser man ganske fort at de dreier seg om tre proprietære (eller delvis proprietære) systemer: Adobe Connect, Skype, og spesialiserte videokonferanseutstyr som finnes i noen møterom.

Det er i all sannsynlighet en konsekvens av forbrukersamfunnet vi lever i: at man tenker produkter og merkevarer og ikke standarder, og at etter man oppdager et spennende produkt vil man gjerne øke oppmerksomheten på produktet blant alle som har liknende behov. Men når man blir produkt- og merkevarefokusert kan man fort miste blikket over det egentlige problemet og den egentlige løsningen. At så mange fortsetter å insistere på Ibux når de kunne kjøpe generiske medikamenter for en brøkdel av merkevarens pris er bare et eksempel på at folk ikke lenger er vant til å vurdere de virkelige forholdene og vil heller ty til merkevarer for en enkel og rask løsning de ikke trenger å tenke så mye på.

Man bør kanskje ikke legge så veldig mye skyld på vanlige databrukere når de begår slike feil, spesielt når store deler av det offentlige her i landet fokuserer på proprietære produkter som, hvis de utnytter genuine standarder i det hele tatt, pleier å blande dem med proprietære teknologier for å styre kunden mot en forpliktelse overfor noen få leverandører i en nesten ubegrenset tid fremover. Men det er litt skuffende at “grønne” representanter ikke vurderer bærekraftige teknologiske løsninger – de som gjøres tilgjengelig som fri programvare og som bruker dokumenterte og åpne standarder – når det ville forventes at slike representanter foreslår bærekraftige løsninger i andre områder.

Python 3: The Feast after the Enforced Python 2 Feature Diet?

Thursday, January 9th, 2014

Victor Stinner makes the case for OpenStack moving to Python 3 “right now”. As a member of the Python core development community, it should not be a surprise that he might have such a view. However, any large Python project would arguably be better off just waiting for the core developers to acknowledge the obvious: that deliberately breaking compatibility and making needless work for people was a bad idea, and that bringing people over to the supposed future of the Python language will involve building a bridge for them and not just telling them to jump some difficult-to-measure divide while teasing them with goodies, many of which being things that have been deliberately withheld from Python 2.x for the sake of making Python 3.x look better than it inherently is.

I notice that the referenced article claims that “Python 3 is fast”. First of all, PyPy offers much more convincing performance benefits for many programs, and PyPy did not support Python 3 last time I checked. Secondly, CPython 3 had a lot of scope for being faster than it was initially, and I seem to recall that there were many Python 3 migration measures in Python 2.6 that led to performance regressions there as well, so everyone had to suffer from the break in the roadmap while an illusion was preserved to suggest that CPython 3′s relative performance was not that bad in comparison to the 2.x series. Thirdly, stuff like the “computed goto” work could have been delivered for CPython 2.x, but there has been a deliberate policy of denying such new features to CPython 2 over the past few years. (For example, repeated attempts to diminish CPython’s perverse resistance to being cross-built, with patches against CPython 2 supplied and largely ignored or shuffled about over many years, presumably languish now as tickets targeted against CPython 3.)

I can totally understand that the core developers don’t really want to look at a code base that is effectively an archaic version of the one they now work on, but as a consequence of deciding that things must be broken, people need to understand that many improvements which could have reached them in CPython 2 never made it that far, partly as a policy decision and partly because the deliberate break probably makes backporting much harder than it might otherwise have been.

OpenStack may well end up being better on Python 3 because of all those new things mentioned in the article, but getting there may well be harder than it needed to be. If the project does end up benefiting, the exercise can hardly be considered an endorsement of the Python 3 strategy. And putting Python 2 users on a feature diet in order to make Python 3 look like a feature feast is no way to justify the strategy, either.

Python 3: I Told You So?

Saturday, January 4th, 2014

Five or so years ago I managed to achieve a small amount of notoriety by being quoted in a Linux.com article about Python 3 where I stated that Python 3 was all very well, but the efforts of the core development community would have been better spent on fixing the major perceived flaws with Python, specifically those affecting the “reference implementation” known as CPython that were giving Python a bad name. Now, in an article discussing the current state of Python 3 adoption, Alex Gaynor has belatedly arrived at the same conclusion. What is also interesting, however, is the response to his remarks about bridging the compatibility gap between Python 2 and Python 3.

Some people evidently seem to think that Python’s “benevolent dictator for life” Guido van Rossum should try harder to coerce people to use Python 3 instead of Python 2. Back in 2008, I pointed out what was rather obvious from the very start of the introduction of Python 3: it represents a considerable inconvenience for relatively little reward; people effectively need to put in lots of work just to arrive at what they already have with their Python 2 systems, albeit with some kind of future-proofing as a bonus (and even then, Python 3 has had its own share of compatibility discontinuities and false starts).

When people choose to adopt Free Software technologies, which is what most Python implementations are and what Python the language effectively is, they tend to want more control over those technologies, their roadmaps, and the pace at which they need to update and migrate their systems to benefit from the continued development of those technologies. Indeed, people resent being told to do thankless work at the command of other people, since in many cases this is precisely why they have abandoned or rejected proprietary software whose vendors have acted in such a dictatorial fashion towards their users and customers. And coercion can never really work in a viable Free Software community, anyway: as some people have pointed out, if the majority reject the direction of the project, they will happily see the leaders of the project recede into the distance leading a minority group that may even be diminishing, which is arguably what has happened here.

Free Software project leaders and developers have to remember that even if they have an abundance of time, energy and resources to bring to a project, the people who use and depend on that project’s software may not be able to match such investments themselves. Stamping one’s foot at the indifference of a community to adapt to exciting new ways of doing things shows a disregard for the investments the members of that community have already made in the project, and it demonstrates an arrogance which suggests that the supposed needs of the project surpass any and all needs of the project’s users, even when those of the project may be frivolous whereas those of its users may actually determine the continued viability of those users’ businesses or operations.

Opening Up the Road Ahead

When Python core developers by their own admission often do not use Python 3 as their primary platform, members of the wider community should hardly feel bad about sticking to Python 2. Pushing others in front to suffer the trials of migration is just one of the unfortunate traits exhibited by the whole Python 3 affair. The other one that comes to mind is the pandering to people who insisted that breaking backwards compatibility was essential to making Python a better language for their particular domain. I am reminded of various delegations of Lisp users supposedly entertaining a switch to Python (as their own language languishes in popularity) who insisted that certain improvements be made to make Python a worthy enough candidate for their use. Such people are best ignored for the most part (after taking on board any genuinely useful suggestions) because they never tend to stick around, anyway, and if they really are serious to adopt a technology then they will eventually make the effort to migrate all by themselves.

Certainly, one should never inconvenience the existing community to pander to a bunch of fickle potential users. And one should always lead by example, demonstrate the viability of the project’s direction, and show that as the project leadership one is willing to share the resulting inconvenience and thereby seek to reduce it for others through hard-won experience with the problems one is advocating that others should choose to face. Back in 2008, only a small part of my response to the author of the Linux.com article was quoted, but I originally wrote the following:

There is this argument, especially with open source projects but it applies more generally, that no-one is forced to adopt backward incompatible change, yet by indicating that the favoured version of the future is a backward incompatible one, people are confronted with what could be called a roadblock on their roadmap. Who will be responsible for maintenance of the language system if they choose not to take the favoured path? If any security fixes are required in the future, where will they come from?

I sincerely hope that the Python core developers do not continue to impose this roadblock on the community in the hope that people will be encouraged through such coercion to adopt Python 3. Yet it appears that hopes are still high that GNU/Linux distributions will still be able to switch to Python 3 and deprecate Python 2 in the relatively near future, provoked by a refusal of the core developers to continue to support Python 2 (either by maintaining the CPython implementation of it or by acknowledging it as the more widespread form of the language) and an apparent reluctance to allow others to do so under the Python community umbrella.

People will continue to use Python 2 for some time to come, and if they might one day consider switching to Python 3 it will only happen if they have not already been alienated by seemingly petty acts of the Python core developers who have sought to punish them for not enthusiastically embracing the project’s latest vision by some arbitrary deadline. Because, as has also been noted, it may be easier for those users to take another path and thus choose another technology entirely than to deal with this needless obstruction on the road ahead. And then, not even the reluctant embrace of actively maintained Python 2 implementations such as PyPy by the core developers will be able to mend the damage.