FFII’s coordinator for Switzerland
Blind trust in valgrind – the Debian OpenSSL vulnerability
The big run on valgrind way back in 2005 to 2006 has already demanded its first prominent victim: the OpenSSL implementation shipped with Debian.
Way back in May 2006, one of the Debian developers ran valgrind on OpenSSL in an attempt to make it more secure. Along the findings of valgrind was an uninitialized buffer named buf in the ssleay_rand_add function in openssl/crypto/rand/md_rand.c. The programmer simply commented out the MD_Update call which added the random data to the pool in order to fix the presumed flaw.
This blind patch was not exactly the correct thing to do. The data contained in buf was exactly the random pool initialization data, which was now no longer being added.
Apparently, the OpenSSL team also had its part in this game though. The Debian developer sent the patch upstream, and it was approved for debugging purposes by the OpenSSL team. Apparently, this was slightly misunderstood by the Debian developer, so he committed the now-defunct MD based PRNG into the Debian codebase.
According to the audit trail of the corresponding Debian bug, the Debian SSL team approved the patch and released a “fixed” package in May 2006.
As soon as the new OpenSSL release was deployed, the Debian users would now create keys using an MD as pseudo random number generator with hardly any modifications in the randon pool. As a short explanation to non-cryptographers: it was not really random.
The Debian Security team then discovered certain patterns which would emerge magically in most of their SSH and SSL keys, as well as keys from all other products which were based on OpenSSL. After several days if not weeks of analysis, the culprit had been tracked down to be that precise valgrind-triggered change.
The effect of this could be observed in the past couple of days by close followers of the Debian community. All of a sudden, the web certificates changed, all authorized_keys files were removed from the project servers, and some SSH host keys had changed, even though non of them had expired. This confused the Debian community very much, and was perceived as “A large security incident immediately ahead”.
With the release of the Debian Security Advisory today, this expectation was finally fulfilled, and the incident was indeed a major one: users were asked to regenerate all OpenSSL generated cryptographic keys since May 2006. A script was released to detect and warn about common patterns(!) in the various key files.
There are certainly various lessons to be learned from this, both on the cryptographic, the programming and the practical side.
- Don’t blindly trust valgrind’s output.
This has been repeated over and over again. If valgrind finds a presumed flaw in your code, it does not necessarily mean it is really a flaw. It must be investigated very thoroughly by the programmer, and not patched away lightly just because it’s there.
- Cryptography may be counter intuitive to a programmer.
I personally can’t stop repeating this. What might appear as a runtime optimization to a programmer can indeed be a timing based information disclosure on the cryptographic level, and what might look like an uninitialized variable might actually not want to be zeroed out.
This is also an argument against GnuTLS I keep repeating. Cryptography is not something which can be handled just like that by any good programmer. One needs at least a diploma in maths and programming plus be a very focused computer geek and close follower of the cryptographic community to even be able to touch cryptographic products successfully. This is the reason why I have major concerns with the GNU community rewriting an SSL implementation from scratch just because they do not like the OpenSSL license.
- A diversification of infrastructures may be useful at times.
This might be a bit counter-intuitive to those who followed the argument from the last paragraph, but the sole reason why the chain of trust did not break for the Debian team was that besides their working OpenSSL PKI, they also had a working, trusted and distributed GnuPG PKI. Thus, even though all OpenSSL keys were compromitted, the GnuPG keys could still be used to verify the origin of various security credentials and to verify that the new key material et cetera was indeed originating from the Debian project.
That said, I would like to proudly add that neither the NetBSD base nor the pkgsrc version of OpenSSL are affected by this bug.
- 22:20: Added more precise information on what keys and certificates changed
- 23:25: Added reference to what exactly happened to get the patch approved